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1

As already pointed out in the comments, the second reaction reagent is not exactly an alcohol but an alkoxide. For example, $\ce{EtONa}$ and not $\ce{EtOH}$. This makes the reaction condition for the second reaction basic whereas the first reaction is taking place in acidic conditions.


2

This is a reasonable question. Basically it asked whether the pre- or below-boiling-point vapor composition can be different from the liquid composition, although they are known to be the same at the boiling point according to the property of azeotropes. We can come up with a right answer by the following careful thinking. You are looking at a bottle of ...


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