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3

Your confusion probably stems from the definition of a reversible path between two states: an infinite sequence of steps along a continuum of equilibrium states, such that at each step the equivalence condition of the second law of thermodynamics, $\mathrm dS_\text{total}=0$, is satisfied. However, there is no requirement that a path between two states ...


2

A battery has a small shelf life if it discharges internally. Saying that a discharged battery is in chemical equillibrium (or much closer to it than a fresh one) is a true statement, obviously, but nothing else. If you reverse the polarity of a primary battery, you get some other reaction than the one happening during discharging backwards. That says ...


4

This is a written reply from Professor Zhdankin*, author of Hypervalent Iodine Chemistry: Indeed, many literature sources classify pentavalent iodine compounds as iodine in the oxidation state +5. It makes sense because the electronegativity of iodine is almost the same as carbon, or even less than carbon. According to different studies, electronegativity ...


3

You got oxidation numbers mixed up. As the comments pointed out, the +9 state is possible only in very few elements and mercury is not one of those. To my understanding in general chemistry, this problem can easily solved using Solubility Rules: Salts containing Group I elements ($\ce{Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+}$) and salts containing ammonium ion ($\ce{...


4

You got the oxidation numbers in the $\ce{NO3^-}$ anion wrong. Remember that the sum of the oxidation numbers in a species must be equal to the total charge. You claimed oxygen has a $-2$ oxidation number and nitrogen has $-3$, this would mean that you would not have an $\ce{NO3^-}$ ion but an $\ce{NO3^9-}$, which is clearly not the case. Try fixing the ...


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