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3

When I approach this type of question, the first thing I ask myself is whether there is a molecule-wide symmetry element present which would transform distant protons into chemically or magnetically equivalent protons. In your case, the molecule is chiral and does not have an axis of rotation so there are no helpful symmetry elements. Next, I try to identify ...


1

It is also a matter of usage of terms. Electron withdrawing substituents slow the rates of electrophilic substitution and the effect is usually expressed as increasing the energy of the intermediate-activated complex and not on changing the energy of the ground state. This makes some sense and it is easy to see the effect. However, electron rich compounds ...


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For those who don't know the Carius test with addition of barium chloride is for organic sulfur. Without the exact reaction conditions it is a bit difficult to be definitive however, it is clear that A & D will react with sodium thiophenoxide under mild conditions. I think this is the answer the question-setter expects. I think it possible with the right ...


4

The given compound is Pyrene. Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system. The chemical formula is $C_{16}H_{10}$. Pyrene is aromatic. The Huckel $(4n+2)π$ rule works best with monocyclic ring systems. If you look at the following resonance structure for pyrene with a central double ...


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TL;DR: The final product will depend on what solvent you are using, what temperature the reaction is being operated and the concentration of the reactants. Long answer From the abstract of this paper1: The $\ce{AlCl3}$ and $\ce{SnCl4}$- catalyzed Friedel Craft alkylation (methylation, ethylation, isopropylation and tert-butylation) of naphthalenes with ...


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No. It is because the lowest three MOs are lower in energy than the corresponding original AOs. In other words, the electrons would rather be there than belong to the separate atoms, as if they wanted the atoms to be together rather than apart. Actually, there is no "as if". These electrons are the force that brings the atoms together. That's ...


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The reaction would theoretically occur through an SN2 mechanism because the hydroxyl (OH) group is bound to a primary carbon, and SN1 will usually only occur under tertiary (steric) conditions with a weak nucleophile. What you are trying to do is referred to as "activation of alcohols". The OH- is not a good leaving group because OH- is a stronger ...


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Finally I find a primary reference by Oae et al.[1] They react benzenesulfonic acid with fused potassium hydroxide using isotopically labelled chemicals. The isotopic labelling results favor a direct nucleophilic substitution of hydroxide for sulfite, so that the only ring position involved in the reaction is that originally holding the sulfonate function. ...


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