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Isn't setting $\Delta G = 0$ akin to enforcing a statement about the spontaneity of the reaction? Yes, it is. But they stipulate that the reaction is at equilibrium, which tells you that neither the forward nor backward reaction is spontaneous, which is precisely what allows you to assert that $\Delta G = 0$.* In other words, when a system is at equilibrium,...


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The answer is a definitive affirmative yes. You don't need to reach out for proteins, organic dyes are known to suffer from solvatochromism in function of the polarity of the solvent they are dissolved. It either may be a bathochromic shift (or, red shift) of the UV-Vis absorption recorded, or a hypsochromic shift (or blue shift). In large proteins, you ...


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$\ce{H+}$ (aq) is equal to $\ce{H3O+}$ It would be more accurate to say $\ce{H+ (aq)}$ is equivalent to $\ce{H3O+ (aq)}$. This acknowledges that the two species have different mass, and that it does not matter how to write them because they are surrounded by plenty of water anyway, and the water reacts with the species, leading to a highly dynamic ...


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First of all, a proton is highly unstable, because it is an ionized H atom. Therefore, it always wants to find a potential well to be stablized (just like electrons want to find a potential well on neuclei; however, note that the two potential wells are inverted due to opposite signs). A proton is often found to bind to lone-pair electrons ":", e.g....


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