12

Firstly, the correct comparison to make to determine which is more likely of $\ce{NO+}+\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{NO-}+\ce{Cl+}$ is the ionization potential vs. the electron affinity of the the two species. The electronegativities are correlated with these other metrics, but it is important to emphasize that those are really the important things. Relatedly, ...


7

My instinct is that there are probably too many variables here for a definitive and accurate answer to be given strictly from first principles. When comparing molecules in which there is only one key difference, especially when that difference leads to steric and electronic effects which are essentially additive, it's fairly easy to draw accurate conclusions....


6

Stork and Birnbaum have reported (Tetrahedron Lett. 1961, 10, 313) the formation of dienamine 2 from octalone 1. Alkylation with methyl iodide leads to α-alkylation of the dienamine. Buffer conditions are required for hydrolysis of the dienamine to octalone 4.


5

Cram's rule, proposed by Donald Cram in 1952,[1] was the earliest model proposed for rationalising the stereoselectivity of nucleophilic additions to carbonyl groups with α-stereocentres. The model involved assigning each α-substituent a relative "size" (small, medium, and large), then placing the carbonyl oxygen antiperiplanar to the largest of these three ...


5

I think Jan did an excellent job of answering your question, however I am writing a slightly longer answer largely with more details concerning the Felkin–Anh rule, just so that someone who is not already familiar with them can learn something too. Assuming that there isn’t an unusually electronegative atom on the carbon next to the carbonyl, the largest ...


4

The $\ce{TBDPS}$ group (tert-butyldiphenylsilyl) is a very bulky protecting group. A silicon atom is bonded to the oxygen, which already acts as a larger carbon atom. That is then substituted by three alkyl or aryl groups, one of which is the very bulky tert-butyl group. There is a lot of congestion going on next to that oxygen atom, so its ability to ...


3

I would say the reason that the iodine ends up in the 2-position is because at the 2 and 3 positions the charge of the carbo-cation is on a secondary position and has no thermodynamic driving force. The adjacent secondary hydrides may shift without much energy loss leaving the major product to be kinetically determined. Since there are two positions for an ...


2

Isocyanide can undergo addition reaction due to the fact that it is capable to attach both the electrophile and nucleophile in the same carbon atom while it is not achieved by cyanide. The negative charge on carbon atom accepts the electrophile to form an intermediate species in which the positive charge on nitrogen atom gets neutralised by the addition of ...


2

In practice, a drying agent is sometimes added to the reaction: I've used molecular sieves before, but a cursory database search brings up a few other options, e.g. magnesium sulfate, silica gel, or Montmorillonite (this list is probably not exhaustive). These remove water from the system and pull the equilibrium position over to the right-hand side. That's ...


2

Whether the oxidation of an alochol or the reduction of a carbonyl group follows a certain mechanism depends on the reagents/conditions. For example: The sodium borohydride reduction of a ketone follows a nucleophilic addition mechanism: $$\ce{R2C=O ->[1)\ \ce{NaBH4},\ \ce{CH3OH}][2)\ \ce{H3O+}] R2CHOH}$$ However, some metal catalyzed hydrogenation ...


1

In the first instance, bromine will attach itself on the benzylic carbon as the benzylic carbocation formed in this case would be more stable than than the tertiary carbocation due to the mesomeric effect. However in the second case, the benzylic carbonation formed would be destabilized due to the -M effect of the nitro group, like you pointed out. So ...


1

Those conditions just give the amine. One you have an amine and an aldehyde or ketone, you should form an imine or iminium ion. Imines are relatively stable, but secondary amines, such as the one in this question, can only form the iminium ion. But these iminium ions frequently generate enamines instead by tautomerization. You should consult your study ...


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