4

The answer could be 3 or 4. 1,2-ethanedithiol will react with the carbonyl group to form a dithiane (similar to the ethylene glycol reaction). Reaction of this with Raney Nickel/H2 desulfurises it, so the whole process is effectively a reduction of the carbonyl group to CH2. It depends on the reaction conditions whether the double bond survives. Raney Nickel ...


4

You seem to have got the uses of the compounds right, but could not bring that knowledge together to apply it here. As you said, you first use the Grignard to add a methyl group to D Let's call this compound K. Then, we use $\ce{NaCN}$ to convert the alcohol into a nitrile, then to a carboxylic acid rather than an amide, as this would be easier to work with ...


4

The tropylium carbocation (the one on the right) is more stable than the primary benzylic carbocation because it is not only resonance stabilised but also quasi-aromatic (which means that the charge is a part of the aromaticity) which greatly increases the stability of the cation. In contrast, the benzylic carbocation is aromatic but the positive charge is ...


3

The question is based on a false premise: Generally we try to give just enough information to be able to reconstruct the original compound, but not too much. This isn’t true. The prime aim of IUPAC nomenclature is clarity and the construction of unambiguous names. Three logicians walk into a bar The bartender asks: “Do you all want a drink?” The first ...


1

The answer will be (a) Acyl chloride. The acyl carbon in an acyl chloride is connected to the chlorine atom. While you have acknowledged this fact, you have missed the point that the +M (resonance) effect of Chlorine is overcome by the -I (inductive) effect. Thus, the electrophilicity of the acyl carbon is actually greater than the electrophilicity of the ...


1

I'll be using the brief guide to the nomenclature of Organic Chemistry as a reference, because I could not gain access to the blue book. This source suffices for this nomenclature example. Seniority of parent compounds The systematic name is based on the name of the senior parent compound, which is chosen by applying the following criteria in the order ...


1

Of course you must add $\ce{H2O}$ on the left hand side, in order to compensate the excess of $\ce{O}$ atoms at right. Then add $\ce{4 H+}$ on the right hand side ! And $4$ electrons to compensate the charges. And that's over. $\ce{C2H6O + H2O -> C2H4O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e-}$. Where is the problem ?


1

The relevant rule for the seniority order of parent structures in the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book) reads as follows. P-44.4 SENIORITY CRITERIA APPLICABLE TO RINGS, RING SYSTEMS, OR ACYCLIC CHAINS P-44.4.1 If the criteria of P-44.1 through P-44.3, where applicable, do not ...


1

In the presence of acid, the 2 position of pyrrole is nucleophilic and can attack electrophilic carbonyls such as aldehydes and ketones. The resulting carbinol (structure 1 in the scheme below) readily dehydrates to the 2-alkylidene pyrrolinium (2), which is itself quite electrophilic. As a result, it can be attacked by other pyrrole molecules (as happens in ...


1

I second @Loong's statement about IUPAC, the system based the nomenclature on rule that avoid any two person from coming to a different structure derived from the same name. Generally the functional group is your starting point based on priority and goes sequentially with priorities until you complete the name. Exceptions are still there for some basic ...


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