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19

The first thing to say is that I'm not sure where that image is taken from; it's neither in the original article nor in the supporting information to the article. Therefore, it appears to be more of an "artist's impression" rather than an actual atomic force microscopy (AFM) image, which is what was reported in the paper. Nevertheless, the actual AFM images ...

3

For an undergraduate starts to learn IR spectroscopy, the stretching frequency of any $A-B$ chemical bond, $\over\nu$ (in $\pu{cm-1}$) can be calculated by using following equation: $${\bar\nu} = \frac{1}{2\pi c}\sqrt{\frac{k}{\mu}}= \frac{1}{2\pi c}\sqrt{\frac{k(m_A+m_B)}{(m_Am_B}}$$ where $k=\text{the force constant of the bond}=\text{bond strength}$, $m_A=... 3 About the molecule that you remember cited in your textbook, there's a study in ref.1. According to these authors: The delocalization of the C1-C2 and Cl-C3 electrons of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-diene (1a) and partial rehybridization at C1, C2, and C3 result in a contributing structure which is perhaps best represented as a$\pi\$ complex (lb) of ...

2

When choosing which name to use when the only difference is the numbering, we choose the combination that gives the lowest possible numbers, 2 and 4 in this case. So the name will be 4-bromo-2-methoxyphenol. The substituents are given in alphabetical order.

1

The important thing ab out HCl gas in these reactions is that it is dry, there is no water present ruling out any hydrolytic pathways. This means that the first step to consider is a protonation by HCl as HCl can ionise in alcoholic solvent, followed by nucleophilic attack by the alcohol solvent. In the example shown the oxygen of the carbonyl is protonated ...

1

In solids, reorientational and especially translational molecular motion are highly hindered. The motion of individual molecules is constrained about mean fixed positions within a regular lattice. Such regularity is absent in liquids, where significant thermal energy is associated with rearrangements in molecular position and orientation. This is of course ...

1

This is an example of reductive amination, which generally proceeds through two main steps: (i) condensation reaction between the amine and carbonyl to generate an imine; and (ii) reduction of the imine to the corresponding amine. Clearly (e) can't do this reaction since there is no carbonyl. The reason why (a) is also an answer comes down to the wording of ...

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