8

You deprotonate the alcohol, and then flip bonds to create the enolate. There are two enolates possible, so swapping bonds gives you the terminal one, which can attack the aldehyde to form the 5-ring. Elimination of water gives you the product.


5

Unfortunately this is not feasible Current catalytic converters are designed to remove noxious pollutants from exhausts. Things like carbon monoxide (poisonous) and nitrogen oxides (noxious and irritating). The trouble with doing this for carbon dioxide is fundamental. Carbon dioxide and water are the ultimate products of combustion of hydrocarbons because ...


4

The Hofmann-Loeffler-Freytag reaction as suggested by @user55119 in the comments above is the way to go. First you need to reduce your nitro group. The reduction of alkyl nitro compounds is less simple than aromatic nitro groups and lower yielding in general. I would suggest the use of Al/Hg amalgam. Acetylate the resulting amine. N-chlorinate the amide - ...


2

Sodium will not take one electron, as you propose. No, it is a redox reaction : the sodium atom will donate one electron to the Oxygen atom of the $\ce{ROH}$ alcohol, so as to repel one $\ce{H}$ atom and make an alkoxide ion. At the end, a $\ce{Na^+}$ cation and a $\ce{RO^-}$ alkoxide anion are produced in the solution. Of course the $\ce{H}$ atom will join ...


2

This reaction is very similar to Reimer-Tiemann reaction which also consists of the reagent $CHCl_{3}$ + $NaOH$. The mechanism of that reaction is believed to have dichlorocarbene intermediate too. A good point to remember is that the dichlorocarbene intermediate is often used to form cyclopropane or carbonyl groups. This is the mechanism for the reimer ...


2

What you have shown in red is the second propagation step in the benzylic free radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The bond dissociation energy (BDE) of bromine is +46 kcal/mol while the overall heat of reaction of the step is -12 kcal/mol. Thus, the formation of the C-Br bond must be -58 kcal/mol. The BDE for the C-Br bond in (1-bromoethyl)benzene is +58 ...


1

No. Iodine is used to help magnesium react with the bromoderivate. If pure magnesium is added to a solution containing a bromoderivate, it should react quickly. But sometimes it does not react at all, because magnesium is covered by a thin and protective layer of magnesium oxide. Added iodine will etch this layer and the underlying metal. This reaction ...


1

The reaction Hydroboration-Oxidation follows anti-Markovnikov rule because of 2 factors: 1)Electronic consideration: When the borane ($\ce{BH_3}$) approaches the $\pi$ bond of the alkene, the attack of the $\pi$ bond to the empty p orbital of the boron triggers a hyride shift (the mechanism of this is similar to that of pericyclic reactions). There is a ...


1

Under different conditions, either enol C=C or aldehyde C=O can attack the protonated C+. In the book's case it's the latter. An example can be like this:


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