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This reaction of ortho-alkylation of phenols was first indroduced by Nagata and coworkers in 1979 (Ref.1). Accordingly, for example, reaction of a phenol with a large excess of an aldehyde and a slight excess of benzeneboronic acid in refluxing benzene (or toluene) in the presence of $\pu{0.1 mol}$ equivalent of propanoic acid (or trichloroacetic acid) gave ...


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An exothermic reaction occurs when the temperature of a system increases due to the evolution of heat. This heat is released into the surroundings, resulting in an overall negative quantity for the heat of reaction (-ΔE ). An endothermic reaction occurs when the temperature of an isolated system decreases while the surroundings of a non-isolated system ...


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You didn't give a mechanism for your expected product, so I can only speculate as to how you intended to form the final product. If you thought to use an Sn2 mechanism, I'd say that the reaction is highly improbable as the halide is attached to a trisubstituted carbon, i.e. a carbon with a lot steric hinderance, and therefore, it would be rather difficult ...


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The vicinal-glycols can be cleaved to corresponding aldehydes and/or ketones in high yield by the action of periodic acid ($\ce{HIO4}$) or lead tetraacetate ($\ce{Pb(OAc)4}$). This oxidative cleavage of a carbon-carbon single bond provides a two-step involving cyclic intrmrdiate reaction mechanism with high-yield. A generally accepted equation for these ...


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You're absolutely right: cyclopropane's maximum ring strain makes it highly prone to addition reactions. Keep the following definition in mind: An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one (the adduct). In your case: Thus, it breaks down the ring ...


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No, it is not a good disinfectant. To quote from the CDC on chemical disinfectants 'Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008)' available here: Methyl alcohol (methanol) has the weakest bactericidal action of the alcohols and thus seldom is used in healthcare 488.


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It's a tricky example, but the $S_N1$ process is favored because the solvent is protic and the resulting 6-member ring is more stable than a 5-member ring. If ring expansion weren't possible, I believe your intuition is correct that the $S_N2$ mechanism would dominate. See this discussion. You're not alone!


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The first step (reaction with acetic anhydride) creates a mixed anhydride, this is a good electrophile with acetate as a leaving group. This is nucleophilically attacked by the oxygen of acetone (drawn as its enol in the scheme, but it is easier to visualise it as acetone) to give a cationic intermediate which is immediately attacked by the -OH of the ...


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The equation is $$\ce{K2CrO4 + Ba(NO3)2 -> BaCrO4 + 2 KNO3}$$ The acetic acid does not intervene. $\ce{BaCrO4}$ is insoluble in the solution and make a pale yellow precipitate, that can be filtrated.


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Energy is needed for separating positive from negative ions in the dissolution process. This energy is taken in the surrounding water. Water is loosing energy in the dissolution process. That is why the temperature of the water decreases. There is nothing special in using $NH_4Cl$. The same phenomena happens when dissolving a salt like $NaCl$ or any other ...


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I think Bard's is more general than Newman's, Newman's assumes Cx=Cx* where Bard does not. Bard says the current is proportional to the forward rate, and if there are metal ions near the electrode, the forward reaction removes electrons from the electrode to reduce the ions. That means the current flows into the electrode. Bard then says the applied ...


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More on the mechanics of the interaction of nitric acid with transition metals, to quote a related source on the electrolysis introduction of solvated electrons into HNO3 in place of via oxidation of copper: $\ce{Cu -> Cu(I) + e-}$ $\ce{Cu(I) -> Cu(II) + e-}$ One major synthetic process for hydroxylamine is the hydrogenation of HNO3 on a ...


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