I disagree with the answer that says "pH measures acidity or basicity" (no matter what is in Wikipedia).
pH is the negative of the log of the hydrogen ion (H+) activity. Activity is a thermodynamic concept that is related to but not the same as concentration. Activity is similar to chemical potential. The same concentration of hydrogen ions will have different activities, depending on what else is in solution. In weak solutions, the activity coefficient that relates the concentration to the activity depends mainly on the charges of the other ions in solution and not on the particular ion species. But at higher amounts of other species, the particular chemicals and chemical interactions become increasingly important.
On the other hand, acidity is the ability to provide hydrogen ions to a reaction and considers not only the hydrogen activity but also the amount of acid-base reaction that can occur. You may have heard of pH 'buffers'. These are solutions that are designed to have a balance of chemical species so that the pH is very stable, even if small amounts of acid or base are added or if the ionic strength of the solution changes. If you add a bit of base to the buffer solution, the solution reequilibrates to provide acid to react with the base. You have to add a fair bit of base before the buffer capacity is used up and the pH changes very much. Then, with further addition, the pH will change a very quickly until it approaches the pH of the base that is being added. So a pH buffer has high acidity and alkalinity, keeping the pH stable.
In groundwater geochemistry, acidity is measured by reacting the solution with strong base until the acid is essentially used up. This is done by titration either to a fixed endpoint pH or to the inflection point in the curve of base added vs pH curve.
Bottom line, pH doesn't measure acidity. In terms of the original question, I would say:
Variable: pH, Quantity: negative log of the hydrogen ion activity, Units: dimensionless pH units.