# What is the cause for Crystal Field Splitting Parameter?

Taking the example of octahedral complexes, the theory says that since the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are closer to the ligands than the $d_{xy}$ ,$d_{yz}$ and $d_{xz}$ orbitals, they reach a higher energy level than the $d_{xy}$ ,$d_{yz}$ and $d_{xz}$ orbitals.(due to greater interaction with the ligands)

I can't understand why the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are closer to the ligands. I agree that they are along the bonding axes, but with some rotation in space I can have other d-orbitals along the bonding axes. For example, if I rotated the octahedral arrangement of ligands about the z-axis, then the $d_{xy}$ orbital could be along the bonding axis instead of the $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbital.

So why can't other combination of d-orbitals (like the $d_{xy}$ and $d_{z^2}$ ) reach a higher energy level instead of the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ during splitiing?

• You choose the x y z however you want. If the x y z is chosen as the direction of the ligands, then you have the regular splitting scheme. If you choose different names, differently orbitals will be the high and low energy ones. This is only a naming problem – Greg May 6 '17 at 9:59