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I want to make a good golden syrup at home. I've tried it few times, but all of them were bad. I think the problem was the amount of citric acid. I want to know how to calculate the amount of citric acid which is needed to make golden syrup from 1 kg of table sugar and 500 ml of water. And also: how much time does take all of the sucrose molecules to break down into glucose and fructose?

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Golden syrup is a type of inverted sugar syrup, like maple syrup, treacle and molasses.

It is made by splitting the disaccharide sucrose (sugar) into a mixture of glucose and fructose components, typically by carefully controlled heating, sometimes with a small amount of citric or potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar).

For example, if you mix 1 kg of fine granular sugar with 2 cups (500 mL) water and 1 g of citric acid, bring to the boil and simmer for about 30 mins, you make inverted sugar syrup. If you simmer this for another 2 - 2.5 hrs or so until it caramelises, you end up with 'golden syrup'.

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