gannex
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Fluorescein synthesis
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12 votes

This reaction is considered a modified Friedel-crafts acylation. The reaction is formally a series of electrophilic aromatic substitutions, with hydroxyl leaving groups picking up protons (1), however ...

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What makes a good antioxidant?
11 votes

Antioxidants are molecules that help pair up electrons in the cell. The way I see it, antioxidation in the body is all about getting electrons to pair up. dioxygen, $\ce{O2}$ is a molecule with an ...

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Why is (NH4)2[CuCl4] square planar complex but Cs2[CuCl4] is tetrahedral?
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11 votes

In solution, the $\ce{[CuCl4]}$2- is expected to exhibit terahedral, or nearly tetrahedral geometry. The Jahn-Teller theorem states that degenerate orbitals cannot be unequally occupied. Molecules ...

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How to find a transition state for an electrophilic addition with Gaussian and map the reaction pathway?
9 votes

I would like to build on LordStryker's well-written guide by providing some elementary examples of input file formatting for these calculations. Now that I've re-read the question, I see that my ...

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Stability of transition and post-transition metal alkoxides
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9 votes

Alkali metal, main group, and transition metal (TM) alkoxides all have significantly different chemistry. Early- and Late-TM alkoxides also have different behaviour, so we should split this family ...

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The solubility of different compounds relative to each other in water
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8 votes

First of all, let's temporarily make a distinction between ionic and covalent compounds. Generally speaking, covalent compounds are more soluble in nonpolar solvents while ionic compounds are more ...

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π-Acceptor ligands
8 votes

Like $\ce{PR3}$, $\ce{NH3}$ or $\ce{NR3}$ are π-acceptor ligands because they have an unoccupied σ* orbital, which can accept electrons from the metal's d-orbitals. For both phosphine and ammona, ...

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Reduction of carbonyl groups
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7 votes

Sodium borohydride is a weaker reducing agent than, say, lithium aluminium hydride, so, although it will react with ketones and aldehydes, it is not strong enough to react with carboxylic acids or ...

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Chemical structure of SiO2 vs CO2
6 votes

$\ce{SiO2}$ forms a tetrahedral covalently bonded network , while $\ce{CO2}$ is a strictly molecular compound that forms double bonds between carbon and oxygen. This is because Si is in the next ...

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Formation of Lactone from 5-amino-decanoic acid?
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6 votes

I doubt your book is asking you to convert this molecule into a lactone. This would be very hard to do. It could, however, be easily converted into a lactam. 5 and 6 membered lactams are formed by ...

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Allred-Rochow vs Pauling Electronegativity scale
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5 votes

Neither scale is 'more accurate'. As The_Vinz said, each scale may be applied in different areas, and there is a moderately good correlation between the two scales once conversion factors are ...

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Difference between aldehydes and ketones
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5 votes

Ketones are to aldehydes as ethers are to alcohols. You could extend this to water. Is water formalcohol? Once you begin to explore the periodic table deeply enough, you will see that there is no ...

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Why does ligand exchange take place?
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5 votes

Ligand exchange is in equilibrium, so it is driven by thermodynamics There are many reasons one ligand would replace another, but it often has to do with Lewis basicity, HSAB (see trans effect), or ...

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Do Grignard reagents deprotonate amines?
5 votes

If you really wanted to start with the substituted aniline, you could probably oxidize, deuterate, reduce to get the product if you indeed want the amine and not the amide, but the yield would be poor....

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Why do spectra appear continuous despite their allowed transitions being discrete?
4 votes

You are right that absorption and emission are quantized processes, but UV-visible peaks represent a broad range of wavelengths because there are multiple vibrational states of their representative ...

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What would this unsaturated cyclic compound be called?
3 votes

It's called cyclohexylidenecyclohexane.

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What is the mechanism of addition of glycine into 5-chloro-N-methylisatoic anhydride?
2 votes

I came up with this, but DHMO proposed the same mechanism first.

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Benzene and proton in 1H NMR
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2 votes

The aldehyde is both deshielded by reduction in electron density about the carbon it is bonded to through electron withdrawal and by the magnetic anisotropy of the double bond. Although a benzylic ...

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Is it possible to write a redox reaction with two oxidations and one reduction together?
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2 votes

I wouldn't try to combine these reactions. You would want to consider both reactions and maybe look up the standard reduction potentials of all reactants and products involved to give yourself an idea ...

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Deducing orbital degeneracy in geometries apart from octahedral or tetrahedral
1 votes

I think you might just be confusing the orientations of the five d orbitals. I don't think you're misunderstanding any aspect of crystal field theory. You're just missing that dxy overlaps with a ...

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Which is the better leaving group in the following Cannizzaro reaction?
1 votes

If you'd like to read more about this mechanism, you should out this paper: Swain, C. G.; Powell, A. L.; Sheppard, W. A.; Morgan, C. R. Mechanism of the Cinazzaro Reaction, 1979, Am. Chem. Soc. 3576 ...

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Basic strength of compunds
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0 votes

The strength of a Lewis base corresponds to the strength of its conjugate acid. As usual, a weak acid will give a stronger base, therefore parent acids with higher pKa's deprotonate to stronger Lewis ...

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Will SnO2 or SnO form from this reaction?
0 votes

Your tin will not spontaneously change oxidation state just from adding water. On dilution, some of the tin (II) chloride may be hydrolyzed, precipitating the basic salt: $\ce{SnCl2 + H2O -> Sn(OH)...

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