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Surface tension may be described regardless if all / some / none of the water molecules expose one or both hydrogen atoms or the oxygen atom toward air, even if there are studies in this field (e.g., example, example). Key points however are the movement (translation, vibration) of the water molecules in the bulk of water droplet in restained, because of ...

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Salt dissolves in water to left behind positively charged sodium ion and negatively charged chloride ion. once you put battery in salt water, the sodium ion migrate towards the "negative tank" and chloride ion migrate towards the "positive tank". Salt water is much more conducive than regular water, so the battery would discharge more ...

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I think you wish to refer to the fact that different forms of ice called ice phases of water are available. Like if under great pressure, in some gas giants like neptune, ice VII may form which has a cubical structure. For more information on the different ice phases, Water Structure and Science would be a good read.

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You can imagine following situation in this hydrolysis: $$\ce{R-C(=O)NH2 + OH- <=>[k_1][k_2] R-C(NH2)(OH)O- \\->[k_3] R-C(=O)OH + H2N- ->[k_4] R-C(=O)O- + NH3}$$ Keep in mind that: $$\ce{R-C(=O)NH2 + OH- ->[k_1] R-C(NH2)(OH)O- }$$ $$\ce{R-C(NH2)(OH)O- ->[k_2] R-C(=O)NH2 + OH-}$$ In this reaction, $k_1 \gt k_2$ because of ...

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The mixing of two compounds is a process which requires consideration of three types of interactions: solute-solvent, solvent-solvent and solute-solute. You make a good argument for the solute-solvent interaction being stronger in mixtures of butanamide and water, compared to butylamine and water. However, as you say, this argument alone would predict a ...

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