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Let the number of total valence electrons, including charges (ions) be ($V$). The number of total electrons required to complete octet/duplet is given by ($T$) = $(2 × \ number \ of \ H \ atoms) + (8 × \ number \ of \ other \ atoms)$ The number of bonding electrons is given by $B = (T-V)$ The number of bonds is given by = $\dfrac{B}{2}$ $=$ $\dfrac{(T−V)}{...


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There have been a few efforts to experimentally quantify the polarizability volume of lone pairs, including: "Polarizability of Non-Bonding Electron Pairs" Australian Journal of Chemistry (1965) 18 (3) , pp.253-. They estimate lone-pair polarizabilities from a series of molar refraction measurements (per lone pair). The refractivity of a molecule ...


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In general the least electronegative atom occupies the central position in the molecule/ion. For example, in PCl3, chlorine is more electronegative than phosphorus, occupy the terminal position and phosphorus is the central atom. Hydrogen is an exception as can NEVER be the central atom. The atom with the lowest subscript in the molecular formula indicate ...


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You can find the hybridization by AXE method; Here A represents the atom that we're interested in (usually the central atom), X the number of atoms bonded to the central molecule or the one we're interested in, and E are the non-bonding electrons (lone pairs). The total number of X and E is known as the steric number. Formula Shape (Name) Bond Angles ...


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