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The problem arises from the metabolized products of methanol. Methanol oxidizes in the liver by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde which is further metabolized to formic acid by another enzyme called aldehyde dehydrogenase. This formic acid is the source for acute toxicity associated with methanol poisoning. Accumulation of this chemical ...


21

Under biological conditions it is almost impossible to release HCN Free cyanide can be released from potassium ferrocyanide by heating or by strongly acidic conditions (and some heat). Neither of these conditions is possible in a living organism. The reason why this is so is because the cyanide ligands are very strongly bound to the iron (in slightly more ...


21

The toxicity is primarily due to radioactivity and to absorption by the body, where that radioactivity can act internally. There is, "significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone," according to Miner and Schonfeld. Many $\ce{Pu}$ isotopes are primarily alpha-emitters, with "high ...


19

Actual toxicity other than radioactivity is not, as far as I know, very well studied. Quite simply, most of the danger is the radioactivity in general, as well as the toxicity of decay products (uranium and americium). Basic knowledge of biochemistry though suggests that it should be toxic for the same reasons that most high atomic weight metals are, namely ...


11

How do we tell or suspect one compound to be carcinogenic? As written in the comments to the question, this the result of large studies on the human population, correlating blood or urine levels of some substance to instances of cancer. Alternatively or concurrently, studies on animal models, such as mice, rats or even in-vitro studies may be carried out. ...


10

Nilay's answer, as well as the comments, do a great job of explaining why methanol is toxic (and ethanol is comparatively less toxic). I'll take a different approach here: I'll explain why ethanol is the major component of alcoholic drinks. To start off, ethanol is not the only alcohol in alcoholic drinks1. Other alcohols such as Glycerol, Tryptophol, Tert-...


8

Thanks for asking this question. I'd heard before that Pu was actually more chemically toxic than its toxicity due to its radioactivity, but had never followed up by checking out this claim in detail. tl;dr: Plutonium is very safe unless you grind it up into dust and inhale it, in which case the hazard is probably from radiation, not chemical toxicity. There ...


3

Both methyl parathion (O,O-Dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) and ethyl parathion (O,O-Diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) are organothiophosphates with identical structure except for dimethoxy group in methyl analog has been replaced by diethoxy group in ethyl analog. Both analogs are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, although ...


3

Spraying another compound to neutralize styrene (which is difficult) or whatever it was is probably not helpful, as it takes too long to spread and other potentially harmful materials are introduced, as one would need to apply the substance in excess. Having readily installed outlets for water curtains at the plant might be helpful. The quickest emergency ...


3

Naturally occuring amino acid with basic sidechain - L-Arginine: Oral supplementation with L-arginine at doses up to 15 grams daily are generally well tolerated. source here


2

Sulfur-containing molecules are indeed used in chelation therapy: prime examples are dimercaprol and penicillamine, both of which contain thiol functional groups.


2

For this process, sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) has been considered as a best reducing agent in traditional and industrial dying but the reducing agent releases sodium sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate ions into the media. Those ions not only cause environmental concerns as major pollutants of the modern textile industry waste waters but they present also no ...


2

In addition to the problems listed in the other answer (typically you get very low yield because most of the aluminum oxidizes, and you have to burn off a toxic plastic coating), aluminum cans are made out of aluminum sheet, which is rolled (hot/cold rolled) and not cast. The alloys used are not especially suited for casting, (the obviously named) cast ...


1

There will be some organic coatings that will burn ,producing -who knows what? You will have little success melting aluminum cans in air , they will basically oxidize. Aluminum cans were not worth anything as scrap until years ago commercial melting began in inert ( non-oxidizing) atmospheres. I have seen the remains aluminum tank trucks ( gasoline) that ...


1

State of matter has the major effect how much and which way the substance gets into the body. That means, while toxicity is the same, the effective toxicity differs very much. Similarly, if a medicine is applied, the total amount of the drug is just a part of the effect. The other part is the form and the way how it is applied. Generally, toxicity ( or ...


1

Because like so much more, in small doses it's fine. Unlike the previous answer though, I think you may be on to something when you say I understand that the dosage here, if any, might not be lethal; am more concerned about trace amounts causing inefficiencies in bodily functions. I think the only concern being about the conversion to cyanide is a ...


1

Polyurethane is a polymer that's made up of toxic chemicals that react pretty completely with each other during the manufacturing process. While there's always potential that there could be residual unreacted materials, I'd say the risk of exposure to these is very minimal. More important would be to look out for formaldehyde. It's a component in some of ...


1

Until perhaps the 1980s printed newspapers used lead type which was set in sheets -- some lead would get onto the paper this way while the ink itself while perhaps toxic did not contain lead. However, the colored comics in the USA used lead in the ink itself. I think lead has been eliminated from newspapers since that time in the USA; I don't know about ...


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