# Tag Info

53

Probably the biggest drivers behind using methane as a fuel is that it is abundant in natural gas and is (currently) mostly useless as a chemical feedstock. Ethane makes up a few percent of natural gas and can also be obtained as byproducts of petroleum refining, but the big difference from methane is that ethane is extremely useful in chemical synthesis (...

51

I think what you may find most helpful is to know a bit of the history of element discovery and atomic theory. The first pure substance containing only the element oxygen to be isolated was dioxygen ($\ce{O2}$), in 1774, though it was called "dephlogisticated air" until 1777 when Lavoisier used the term "oxygen" for the first time. This was some 30 years ...

39

In both cases, there appears to be a confusion of terminology between common and technical uses. We commonly use methane and propane for cooking (and home heating), but not ethane. I would expect ethane to be suitable for this, being in between the two, but I've never heard of anyone using it for this purpose. Why is that? In reality, anyone using ...

37

TL;DR IUPAC hasn’t made up their mind, but plain old water appears to be an appropriate name. However, chemical derivatives of water may not be named using water. In Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 it is stated (P-21.1.1.2) that The common names water, ammonia, [...] are used in these recommendations but ...

34

The classic catch-all term is molecular entity, often abbreviated to just entity. There's a Wikipedia page for it, which references the IUPAC Gold Book entry. Quoting from the latter: Any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable ...

33

Not quite, an isotope has same number of protons ($A- N = Z = \mathrm{constant}$), but a different number of neutrons ($\mathrm N$ varies; e.g. $\ce{^3_\color{red}{1}H}$ and $\ce{^2_\color{red}{1}H}$, or $\ce{^235_\color{red}{92}U}$ and $\ce{^238_\color{red}{92}U}$ are isotopes). An isobar has a fixed number of total nucleons ($Z + N = A = \mathrm{constant}... 32 Yes, cations always have a positive charge and anions always have a negative one. The difficulty is that the term cathode and anode do not always correspond to the same pole. The cathode is that pole of an electrolytic/electrochemical cell where reduction takes place (cathodic reduction) while the anode is where oxidation takes place (anodic oxidation). ... 27 First, let’s get the definition of weak and strong acids or bases out of the way. The way I learnt it (and the way everybody seems to be using it) is:$\displaystyle \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} < 0$for a strong acid$\displaystyle \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b} < 0$for a strong base$\displaystyle \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} > 0$for a weak acid$\displaystyle \...

27

There is no true, accepted definition of heavy metal. I was taught to apply the option a metal that has density equal to or over $5.0\ \mathrm{g/cm^3}$. Other variants include a different density range, specific gravity over density, environmental impact, atomic number, toxicity, or atomic mass, even chemical properties. See here$^{[1]}$ for further ...

24

You could imagine stirring the sugar enough for the water molecules to be uniformly distributed throughout - it would then be homogeneous. However, even then, to refer to the mixture as a solution of water in sugar is unhelpful, not least because referring to a slightly damp solid as a solution will only confuse. A definition needs to be useful, as well ...

23

No, it's not. The "dihydrogen monoxide" name is used as part of a hoax. In the scientific community, there are chemical names for water, and which one is used in the literature generally depends on how it interacts with something else (hydroxic acid and hydrogen hydroxide were two I heard most often in acid-base reactions). IUPAC, the standards ...

23

There is no chemical difference, only a psychological one: how do you think about it. They are both the same thing, but many people associate $\ce{H+}$ ions with chemical reactions and protons with particle physics. A hydrogen atom has one electron and a proton, no neutron. Therefore $\ce{H+}$ is just a proton. That is why acids are sometimes referred as ...

23

Both "monooxide" and "monoxide" are used in the literature, yet "monoxide" is being used more often (Google Books Ngram Viewer). Although this is an accepted elision, it is not the preferred one, and must not set a precedent for other cases when multiplicative prefix ends with the same vowel as the root word begins with, such ...

22

In the original German paper [1] Adolf Strecker used Aldehyd-Ammoniak or aldehyde-ammonia as a precursor, that's where the name derives from: Vor einigen Jahren habe ich gezeigt, daſs Aldehyd-Ammoniak und Blausäure beim Erwärmen mit verdünnter Chlorwasserstoffsäure sich zu einer schwachen Basis, Alanin genannt, vereinigen [...]: $$\ce{\underset{\text{... 22 Yes, equilibrium and steady-state are distinct concepts. A reaction is at equilibrium if reactants and products are both present, the forward and reverse rates are equal and the concentrations don't change over time. If this is the only reaction in a closed, isolated system, the entropy in the system is constant. Steady-state implies a system that is not ... 21 Like most of the other professionals answering here, I've given a couple of talks on international conferences and published some articles in peer-reviewed journals. I have never used the terms dihydrogen monoxide or oxidane and do not intend to do so in a serious, scientific context. Typically, one talks and writes about water, aqueous solutions and even ... 20 This is mostly because boric acid is commonly believed to have different acidity mechanism. While common acids generally dissociates \ce{HNO3 <=> H+ + NO3-} boric acid is commonly believed to associate with water \ce{H2O + B(OH)3 <=> H+ + [B(OH)4]-} this type of acidity is rather common for metal hydroxides, hence the way of writing. For ... 20 "Estrontium" is not used as an element name in any language. It appears that the error traces to a single user by the name of Alejo Miranda (listed as from Ecuador) who has posted a large collection of periodic tables and individual element clip art to shuttersock, iphoto, etc. in which "estrontium" is incorrectly used as the English name for strontium. The ... 20 Herzberg filtration speed: The time taken to filter \pu{100 mL} water at \pu{20 ^\circ C} through a filter area of \pu{10 cm2} at a constant pressure of \pu{5 cm} water column (Thomas Scientific). The values are given in seconds. So, the example OP has given has Herzberg filtration speed of \pu{375 s}. That means the relevant filter paper takes \... 19 There is some disagreement in usage among authors, but IUPAC standard nomenclature approves calling beryllium an alkaline earth metal, as explained on page 51 of IUPAC's last Red Book. In fact, all the elements belonging to group 2, \ce{Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba,Ra}, are called alkaline earth metals with IUPAC's approval. Other common traditional names approved by ... 19 Yes, "to the left" refers to the left side of an equilibrium expression. Traditionally, the autoionization of water is written as$$\ce{2H2O <=> H3O+ + OH-} When we talk about equilibrium lying "to the left", it means that the educt/reactant is favored, i.e. more $\ce{H2O}$ than $\ce{H3O+}$ or $\ce{OH-}$. Conversely, an equilibrium that lies "to ...

19

The symbol mol is due to Ostwald who was a very influential and respected physical chemist more than a century ago. In German, "mole" is "Mol". It is a shortform of Molekül. I believe the Internet Archive has an English translation of his historically famous book of 19th century. This is where I recall reading this. The original reference ...

18

Probably you are having problems with Le Chatelier's Principle. Suppose you have an equilibrium established between four substances $\ce{A}$, $\ce{B}$, $\ce{C}$ and $\ce{D}$. What would happen if you changed the conditions by increasing the concentration of $\ce{A}$? According to Le Chatelier, the position of equilibrium will move in such a way as to ...

18

It is essentially exactly what your teacher says: the term vitamin B complex is used because the structures assigned a name ‘vitamin Bx’ don’t really have anything in common although they are all somewhat important. As to why nobody ever uses vitamin K complex or vitamin D complex: well, at least in my country those vitamins are very under-represented when ...

18

It is a semantics question with an open ended discussion. If you recall the old problem "How many angels can dance on a pinhead? Medieval problem, this issue here is similar. Basically in chemistry, all the terminology is controlled or endorsed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). They have a very open ended definition of a salt:...

17

From what I was taught in Middle-school, cations are those ions that move towards the cathode, likewise anions are those ions which move towards the anode. Nope, the definitions are as follows (from the IUPAC Goldbook): cation A monoatomic or polyatomic species having one or more elementary charges of the proton. anion A monoatomic or polyatomic species ...

17

Both answers are right. In the IUPAC Gold Book it states A liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance, when for convenience one (or more) substance, which is called the solvent, is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. So either way can be used, but it is usually more conventional to call the ...

17

The reason why the generic name of most drugs have seemingly little semblance to their chemistry is in the interests of practicality; a doctor would find it easier to write sildenafil (generic name) or Viagra (brand name) in a prescription than 5-{2-Ethoxy-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl]phenyl}-1-methyl-3-propyl-1$\ce{H}$,6$\ce{H}$,7$\ce{H}$-pyrazolo[4,...

17

I think the term describing the initial process of separation of the solid phase (dust particles) from the gas phase via bubbling is a wet scrubbing process. On an industrial scale, it's more efficient to spray liquid phase, whereas on a laboratory scale bubbling in a compact glass gas scrubber or a gas washing bottle is more convenient. In order to ...

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