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So this is a gross oversimplification of this issue, however it is a very high level overview of the mechanism at work. From a blog that shell oil put out: Mineral multigrades use a light weight mineral oil (the same as a light weight monograde oil), but include an additive called a Viscosity Index Improver. The best way to visualise this viscosity index ...


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In non-polar liquids, the intermolecular forces are known as London dispersion forces (or dipole induced dipole interaction). This is the weakest interaction that exists between molecules. The strength of this interaction depends on polarisability of non-polar molecule. As an example, let's take the following examples: $$ \begin{array}{lr|lr|lr|lr} \hline \...


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The polarity of the compound is a measure of the difference in dipole moment across the molecule. Think of it as a see-saw with a non polar compound being balanced and a polar compound having one end heavier than the other. As the polarity increases, the relative attraction of the partial negative side of the molecule to the partial positive side of the same ...


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Boyle, Gay-Lussac, Charles laws can all be deduced from the more general ideal gas law, namely : $\ce{PV = nRT}$, provided you know that P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the container, n is the amount of gas, in moles, R is a constant ( $\ce{R = 8.314 J K^{-1} mol^{-1}}$), and T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin. Let's show that Boyle's ...


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There is no contradiction. Each law is valid under a certain conditions. This is because each law of these assumes the constancy of one of the three following variables (the pressure , the volume , the absolute temperature) and then studies the relation between the other two. Isn’t this a contradiction? This is how scientist design experiments. Suppose a ...


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Low pressure is the way to go, adding other solvents doesn't help much There is only one (easy) way to get cold water to evaporate quickly. That is to lower the pressure. At a pressure of about 1% of atmospheric pressure (achievable with a standard laboratory water aspirated vacuum pump) water boils at about 10 celsius. Even water at 5 degrees celsius will ...


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