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The monoesters of succinic acid can be prepared using Steglich esterification method (Ref.1,2), which is specially suitable for alcohols with the $\ce{OH}$ functional group is in steric hindrance. In this method, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as the coupling reagent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst are used. The reference 1 gave a typical ...


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What databases do you have access to? A Scifinder search would find literature references with no difficulty. A Google search finds this technical report which has the synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin and the preparation of Fe(II) and Zn(II) complexes report here. The Cu(II) complex is prepared in this lab report here. The references in these reports should ...


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Aminoxyl (trivial name: a nitroxyl radical or a nitroxide) denotes a radical functional group with general structure $\ce{R2N–O^•}$. It is well known that sterically unhindered aminoxyls baring $\alpha$‐hydrogens are unstable and undergo rapid disproportionation to nitrones and hydroxylamines (Ref.1: A new mechanism for the decomposition of $\alpha$‐hydrogen ...


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I like what Maurice said "When nobody understands a scientific phenomena, we give it a name. Here the name is overpotential. Here the hydrogen is said to have a big "over potential" on mercury cathode. That is a bright and remarkable way to hide our ignorance." This is little on the extreme side but people have spent their life on ...


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