10

The most precious component of the reaction is the starting material you made yourself so the materials used in excess are usually the bought ones, unless you are at the first step of a sequence. In some cases the % catalyst will be the result of running a series of experiments to establish how much was needed - these studies would normally form part of the ...


6

To the best of my knowledge, there are no known $\ce{LnCl4}$ species. Although $\ce{CeCl4}$ has been mentioned in older literature, more recent publications tend to refute its existence attributing the observed reactions to $\ce{CeCl3}$ and $\ce{[CeCl6]^2-}$ species, which could be fairly easily isolated and characterized. Among cerium(IV) tetrahalides, only ...


5

If the only potassium salt you have is $\ce{KCl}$, then perhaps the only feasible way to get rid of the chlorine is electrolysis. Using a cation-selective membrane, electrolysis in water will produce $\ce{KOH}$ (and hydrogen, $\ce{H2}$) at the anode, and chlorine, $\ce{Cl2}$, at the cathode (along with potassium hypochlorite, $\ce(KClO)$). Though this will ...


4

The group that initially publishes a new method will usually run a series of test reactions using different loadings of catalyst, different relative equivalents and different reagents to deterine which combination gives the most optimal results. For example, if n-BuLi is a reagent in a new method, it could be that the optimal amount of n-BuLi is $\pu{1.2eq}$ ...


4

Since primary amino acids like glycine, alanine can't be decarboxylated under oxidative conditions, what would be the best catalyst for this reaction? Decarboxylation of $\alpha$-amino acids is known enzymatic procedure in biological systems. Non-enzymatic decarboxylation of $\alpha$-amino acids is also a long-known reaction, which leads to amines with a ...


3

One paper1 suggested use of pyridoxal as catalyst: When α-amino acid are heated with pyridoxal in dilute aqueous solution in the absence of metal ions, two closely but independent reaction takes place: $$ \begin{align} \ce{RR'CNH2COOH ->[Pyridoxal] RR'CHNH2 + CO2} & \tag{R1}\\ \ce{RR'CNH2COOH ->[Pyridoxal] RR'C=O + CO2 + Pyridoxamine} & \tag{...


3

I think you are in correct track in preparing Polylactide (PLA)-starch bioplastic, in a short. The question is actually an opinion-based but interesting one. So, even though there is high possibility that I may get down-voted, I'd like to give few of my opinions. I think you may have to tryout few steps. I agree with the crushing PLA pellets into powder ...


3

Your question suggests you did not access Leo Paquette's Encyclopedia of Organic Reagents (14 volumes, some schools have access to the electronic version eEROS), or its one-volume siblings by topic, e.g., Oxidizing and Reducing Agents (this one by Burke and Dannheiser). These resources cover physical / chemical properties of frequently used reagents and ...


3

As noted by @ansdelisk, $\ce{CeCl4}$ hasn't been isolated yet as a pure compound. It exist in a solution although not for too long as it as hydrolyze/decomposes to $\ce{Ce(III)}$ and chlorine. As noted here: Ceric chloride, $\ce{CeCl4}$, has not been isolated. It can be obtained in solution, but the solution cannot be kept without decomposing. Ceric ...


3

(Check again if your lab has not a Schlenk line or if one may be purchased, manufactured (your local glass blower), acquired (ebay-like second hand), or shared with your befriended group across the aisle. Because it is a tool equally used in inorganic chemistry, catalysis, etc. Then read a guide like this one to have some general idea, and get an ...


2

Not mentioned yet by the other answers is this: Many (not all) organic reactions lead to a chemical equilibrium, and only substantially increasing the relative amount of one / of multiple reagent(s) compared to an other, or / and removal of one / of multiple reaction products renders these reaction synthetically useful. Recall e.g., esterification reactions ...


2

I assume you are looking for activated manganese dioxide (AMD). Apart from the Attenburrow process mentioned in @Buttonwood's answer ($\ce{MnSO4 + KMnO4 + NaOH}$), I found three other process that might suit your need (I noticed OP has loads of $\ce{MnSO4}$. So, the aforementioned process will work. The processes mentioned in this answer doesn't involve $\ce{...


1

I realize this question is old but the mechanism is nicely described here (steps 1-3): http://www.umich.edu/~chemh215/W06HTML/SSG2/ssg6/main_files/Page346.htm Briefly, the released t-butyl carbocation is subsequently deprotonated by the anionic TFA, resulting in the formation of 2-methyl-propene. This regenerates the protonated TFA that is needed to continue ...


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