5

Hydrolysis of nitrile is pH dependent. It will lead to formation of different products based on pH. Theoretically, nitrile hydrolyze to form amide and then ammonium salt. $$\ce{RCN ->[H2O] RCONH2 ->[H2O] RCOONH4}$$ But in practice, the reaction between nitriles and water is so slow that it is considered negligible. The nitrile is instead heated with ...


3

If you have read the reference 1 carefully, you would realized that the amounts of $\ce{KBr}$ and $\ce{Fe2O3}$, as well as reaction temperature and time is very important to the reaction yield. That's the reason I asked you to list your procedures so that we can analyzed them and suggest some changes. Well, as reference 1 listed, follow the following ...


2

Yes, you are correct. For converting a nitrile to amide, we do controlled hydrolysis. So, first amide is obtained and then ammonium salt of the carboxylic acid is obtained. So, the reaction would be $$\ce{RCN}+2 \ce{H_2O_2}+\ce{OH^{-1}} \ce{->} \ce{RCONH_2} +\ce{O_2}+\ce{H_2O}$$ Which is done at $\mathrm{pH}$ range of 7-8. If you increase or decrease the $...


2

My thoughts are along the lines of @Andrew and @Waylander. Step F doesn't tell us much, @orthocresol! I prefer a cyclization, 1 $\rightarrow$ 2a, followed by hydrolysis of ester 2a to alcohol 2b. Alternatively, N-O bond homolysis with light would probably involve a cage mechanism. .


1

You can make the silicates by fusing the hydroxides with silica. Potassium silicate fertilizer grade are successfully produced by direct fusion of silica ($\ce{SiO2}$) and potasium compounds($\ce{KOH}$ and $\ce{K2CO3}$) in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The fusion temperature reaches around 1350 °C. $$\ce{SiO2 + 2 KOH ->[\Delta] ...


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