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OP's question: From the papers I've read, most if not all of them use the intercept with the $\mathrm{pH}$ axis instead of the $\log \left(\frac{\ce{In-}}{\ce{HIn}}\right)$ axis in this situation, why is this? Answer for this question is easy. According to the graphs plotted using the equation $\log \left(\frac{\ce{In-}}{\ce{HIn}}\right) = \mathrm{pH} - \...


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It is a very open ended question, but first three choices will cause errors. Regarding your pH issue, you are right, it is multiplicative error. Take the example of phenolphthalein, as you say that its color (=absorption spectrum) is different in acidic or basic medium. So pH change can shift the lambda max of analytes, hence the cause of error. ...


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