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When most people think of the term solvent, a liquid medium comes to mind; however, in the technical sense of the definition, this does not have to be the case. Here is the definition of a solution present in the IUPAC gold book: A liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance, when for convenience one (or more) substance, which is called the ...


6

Pencil lead writes on rough surfaces by abrading into tiny particles and getting pushed into surface irregularities. If the surface isn't rough, you would get no visible residue of graphite. A pencil might sometimes even leave a scratch on dense wood that is so smooth that it has almost no blackness from graphite. Wood is hydrophilic and even contains some ...


5

Well, acetone is at the same time polar (so it likes water) and lipophilic (so it likes fat). As such, it is a very good solvent.


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One way this can happen is if the different conformers have different dipole moments. Those with largest dipoles might have higher energy due to greater charge separation. However those conformations with larger dipoles will also interact most strongly with the surrounding solvent medium (dielectric), and thereby the solvent will reduce their energy by a ...


4

Hydrogen does not just insert itself physically into the metal. Although only a few metals form stoichiometric hydrides with predominantly ionic character, most of them (and all those involved in hydrogen/hydride storage) form some type of bond, generally involving saturation of the hydrogen 1s orbital with ionic or polar covalent bonding. Helium simply ...


4

PETG is also not resistant against toluene. A month-long contact under ambient conditions results a complete swollen/disintegrated PETG material (PDL rating 0), and an year-long exposure even causes whitening [1, p. 2660]: References Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics; Woishnis, W. A., Ebnesajjad, S., Eds.; PDL handbook series; William Andrew: ...


4

The perspective about ethyl acetate should be revisited. EtOAc is slightly soluble in water; not infinite (as e.g. ethanol), nor this little as hexane(s). It is greener than halogenated solvents such as dichloromethane, and the boiling point higher than the for dichloromethane or diethyl ether*) is an advantage during summer. Thus, EtOAc is an often used ...


3

According to Palstics International's Chemical Resistance Chart, the A-rated plastics (no solvent attack) towards acetone are: ECTFE (Halar®): transparent films available Fluorosint® PTFE: white HDPE: transparent films available Nylon®, Type 6/6: white PP: clear sheets available PPS: opaque white PTFE: white Among these, polypropylene appears to be the ...


3

Hot carbon dioxide gas can act very much like a solvent, and for an otherwise unlikely solute at that. See here for the not so exotic chemistry involved.


3

Solvents imply dissolving process as intermolecular interactions between solvent and solute, leading to disperging the solute from the condensed form. "Permanent" gases near normal conditions do not provide such interactions. Volatile compounds evaporate with or without presence of gas. Gas is rather a bystander/spectator of such evaporation. Fluids near ...


3

There are two ways to add two miscible solvents to each other. One is the bartender skill, whereby you attempt to create two different layers of solvents and then try to keep the flask motionless to prevent mixing. The other way is to mix them all along, whether by shaking, careless pouring, or a stirring bar. I will concentrate on the second as that is, in ...


3

Procedure from the paper by Xie et al. [1] (Powder XRD didn't reveal any other impurity phases in the bulk samples): Synthesis of $\ce{CH3NH3PbI3}$. The as-prepared $\ce{CH3NH3I}$ and $\ce{PbI2}$ (Sigma-Aldrich, 5N) were mixed in stoichiometric ratio and dissolved in γ-butyrolactone (Sigma-Aldrich), and then a 40wt% solution was formed. The solvent of as-...


3

The bad news is that HPLC columns often die because this ill-treatment. We have had the same issues and eventually several expensive columns was discarded due to the negligence of a student. Acetonitrile, when used above 90% with a phosphate buffer, leads to precipitation inside the column. I have great deal of experience with column manufacturing technology....


3

Note that I have never heard about Varsol until now, living in the Central Europe. By searching Wikipedia ( what you could do as well before asking ), I realized the below: Varsol alias White spirit alias many other synonyms, used as a painting solvent, is based on C7-C12 oil hydrocarbons, with density 0.765(type T1), 0.780(type T2), 0.795(type T3) ( ...


3

Found a good explanation in Oxford University presentations. It appears that partially positive side of aprotic solvents is hindered in the middle of the molecule. Only negative charge is on the surface. I've looked at DMSO, DMF, acetone, acetonitrile - all of them share this feature. So in case of a negatively charged ion - such solvents are not good at ...


3

Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) - is the short answer. Your observation has very much to do with the energy density of the solvents - with the idea that lesser the difference in the energy densities better is the ability of solvent to dissolve the solute. I am very poor at explaining things and not an expert in the matter at hand (please excuse me for ...


3

At $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$ ($\pu{298.15 K}$), it is reported to be $\pu{(-12.06 ± 0.04) kJ mol-1}$ (Ref.1). Reference: S.J. Gill, I. Wadsö, "Flow-microcalorimetric techniques for solution of slightly soluble gases. Enthalpy of solution of oxygen in water at $\pu{298.15 K}$," J. Chem. Thermodyn. 1982, 14(10), 905-919 (https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(...


2

Poutnik has given an excellent answer in general for your question. Since you asked about Varsol™ in particular (not white spirit in general), I'd like to give an additional insights for your benefit. Yet you didn't mention the paticular Varsol™ brand so I'll give physical data for all 3 Varsol™ brands avilable. Varsol™ is an ExxonMobil Chemical brand for a ...


2

Ethyl acetate disolves PLA - which is typically the ingredient in non-acetone nail polish removers. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethyl_acetate According to Wikipedia: "If the filament is soaked in a small amount of ethyl acetate, it will dissolve and can be used to clean 3D printing extruder heads or remove PLA supports. The boiling point of ethyl ...


2

Adding solvents that need to evaporate, to your epoxy, can cause pinholing. You need a integratable solvent. Styrene monomer works well. You can get it from a fibreglass supply or by pyrolizing poly-styrene. The monomer will combine with the epoxy so it won't need to evaporate out of the epoxy.


2

Tritan is a co-polyester. It is prone to stress cracking in the presence of a number of common solvents - cyclohexanone and tetrahydrofuran are used as surface bonding agents. Acetone can induce stress cracking, as can IPA. I would suggest overprinting if you want to disguise the logo. As for the aluminium item - take your choice - cyclo, THF, acetone, ...


2

Yes, solvents can be in gaseous form. Air itself is an example of a gas-gas solution, where other gases are "dissolved" in nitrogen. But liquids and solids can not be dissolved in gas to form a true solution, instead they form colloids. Reference Physical Chemistry Textbook for Competitions by Dr. O.P. Tandon and Dr. A. S. Singh, Ninth Edition, 2008.


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Plastics Design Library series include tabulated parameters for the variety of polymers. One of such parameters is a PDL number rating from 0 to 9: 0: solvent dissolved disintegrated 1: decomposition 2: severe distortion; oxidizer and plasticizer deteriorated … 9: highest resistance, no change In the table below I assembled data on thermoplastics ...


2

Aluminium iodide ($\ce{AlI3}$) is first introduced in 1984 as an easily accessible, a highly regioselective versatile ether-cleaving reagent with novel cleavage pattern (Ref.1). Application of $\ce{AlI3}$ in organic synthesis has been reviewed (Ref.2) and it seems like acetonitrile is the best solvent to be used in catechol ether demethylation (e.g., 2-...


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Think of the overall process and you will see where the energy comes from Looking at just the reaction of iodide with the alkyl chloride doesn't give you the complete picture of the reaction. Sure, in that part of the reaction the bond-breaking and bond formation don't balance out. But in reality this doesn't mean there is no reaction: it just means that ...


2

Chemists need terminologies. NO terminology is perfect and you will always find exceptions. In general, in an n-component mixture, the component which has the highest concentration is the solvent.* Therefore your point no. 3 is invalid because pouring does not determine the solute-solvent label. Only point 2 is relevant. Point 1 is irrelevant. *...


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The term solvent is not restricted to liquids. You can very well use it for gases, it may not be wrong to say that in air, nitrogen is the solvent in which oxygen is dissolved. We regularly use supercritical $\ce{CO2}$ in chromatography. There is no harm in calling a solid solvent- think of alloys. You can read the concept of solid solutions here .


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Polyethylene (polythene, to some) may have plasticizers, such as adipates, terephthalates, or phthalates, but they are not inherently needed in all cases. Hopefully, the supplier of those alcohols does not bottle them in cntainers with plasticizers, but a wash bottle, purchased separately, might very well have them added to the plastic, particularly because ...


2

A single solvent? Probably not. Different elements have dramatically differing solubilities in most solvents, and so you would have to tune the solvent to the element at least to some extent. However, for the specific task of identifying a solvent that would (a) burn and (b) dissolve chemicals suitable for giving either a blue/green color or a pink/violet ...


2

@ Joseph. If I were you I would start in advance by producing a regular vertical flame (nearly colorless) with a methane or propane or butane burner. A big stable flame, as long as possible. And then, just when you want the rest of the world know the signal, I would spray an aqueous solution of lithium chloride or of copper chloride horizontally through the ...


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