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At low concentrations for which the ideal bp elevation/fp depression expressions usually apply, molarity is linearly proportional to molality, therefore the statements are equivalent. This webpage explains nicely why low concentrations are important: Raoult's law only works for low concentration solutions. Why? Well, in order for our approximation to ...


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Solution 1 Let's assume there is 1 mole total of solvent and solute. With a mole fraction of 0.2 solute, there is 0.2 mole of solute, the rest (0.8 mole) is benzene. We can calculate the mass of 0.8 mole benzene from the molar mass, and express it in kilograms: $$ m_\mathrm{benzene} = n_\mathrm{benzene} \cdot M_\mathrm{benzene}$$ $$= \pu{0.8 mol} \cdot \pu{...


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IUPAC “Green Book” recommends to use $\mathrm{sln}$ for denoting a solution in general [1, p. 54], referring to earlier Recommendations 1981. Appendix No. IV to Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units [2, pp. 1240–1242]. This has been extensively covered in the following posts: What is the standard way to denote physical ...


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Use the ebullioscopic equation (the first equation) in this Wikipedia article, $$\Delta T = K_\mathrm{b} m$$ First solve for $m_\mathrm{init}$, the initial molality of urea. Second figure out at what molality $m_\mathrm{fin}$ the boiling point is elevated by $\Delta T = \pu{1.5 °C}.$ Since the amount of urea is constant, the % change in the mass of water ...


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The key to understanding this type of question is that the equilibrium (saturation) vapor pressure of a pure liquid is to a first approximation (that is, assuming ideal behavior) independent of the presence of other gases, such as (in this case) oxygen. Therefore, you can think of $\pu{355 Torr}$ as being always the pressure of the vapor when in equilibrium ...


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Asking why When you ask why, you want to know about causality. If I ask "why does the cold pack show a decrease in temperature" and the answer is "because the reaction is endothermic", this might be considered a tautology. After all, endothermic means that energy is needed, and this energy can come from the surrounding, lowering the temperature. Why does ...


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