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The equilibrium is independent on the pressure above the liquid because the mechanism of creating it has nothing to do with the other gases above the liquid It may seem intuitive that a higher gas pressure above a liquid would "push" liquid vapour back into the liquid. But not if you understand how gases work or how a liquid/vapour equilibrium is ...


3

I assume you consider the saturated vapor pressure at 100% relative humidity. (As at 50% rel.humidity, vapor pressure = 0.5 saturated vapor pressure). Be aware that ability to contain certain amount of vapor, having respective vapor pressure, is property of space, not of a gas. In first approximation, presence of air or other gas has no effect of ...


3

There are (at least) two reasons to consider: accuracy and precision. Accuracy as in preparing a stem solution of $\pu{100 mL}$ with a balance right to say $\pu{0.1 g}$ or a graduated cylinders right to the full $\pu{1 mL}$ is easier, than for $\pu{20 mL}$. Depending on the class, volumetric flasks may be better in terms of absolute / relative error than ...


2

Consider the partial pressures separately. If you answer these questions you have your own solution. Oxygen does not condense, may be deemed an ideal gas. What does halving the volume do to its partial pressure? (We assume that exactly half the volume, 50 ml vs 100 ml, is available because we neglect the liquid volume in this problem.) Water can condense, ...


2

The OP's comment: I'm just using the chloroform to get rid of other compounds, so once I separate it out, I expect my molecule to be in the aqueous phase, and then to vacuum distill it out. This indicate OP's in the process of isolating a water soluble compound from a (bio)metrix. Probably a natural product. In old days, there was a procedure we have ...


1

The Lattice and hydration energies applies to cases of dissolution of ionic compounds like $\ce{NaCl}$. For covalent liquid compounds with polar bonds like water, the lattice energy is replaced by the bond dissociation energy. The value of the dissociation energy ( enthalpy ) -- involving hydration -- can be indirectly determined from the temperature ...


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