5

Osmotic pressure for non-electrolytic solutes is given by $$\pi = CRT$$ where $C$ is the effective concentration of all the solutes. In our case, with multiple solutes, we simply add all their concentrations to obtain the effective concentration. This gives us $$ \begin{align} \pi_\mathrm{cell} &= 0.05RT\\ \pi_\mathrm{environment} &= 0.03RT \end{...


4

Aside of dissolving iodine in ethanol, suggested in the other answer, another way is to reduce a part of iodine to iodide, e.g. by the classical reaction with thiosulphate. The rest of iodine will dissolve. The needed amount of thiosulphate is at least 1/3 of the stoichiometric amount wrt the total iodine. $$\ce{2 S2O3^2- + I2 -> S4O6^2- + 2 I-}$$ $$\...


3

There is high probability the desired properties of ascorbic acid are directly related to acid being acidic and in the free acid form, i.e. not in the form of the ascorbate. It is hard to advise, not being familiar with this part of the applied food chemistry, it the effect of ascorbic acid happens in the cold dough conditioning stage and/or in the stage of ...


2

Yes, the calcium ion could lead to precipitation. The solubility of $\ce{CaCO3}$ in distilled water is about 15 mg/L, which is about 0.15 mM calcium ion if there is no other source of carbonate. The solubility constant for $\ce{CaF2}$ is about $4\times 10^{-11}$, which means that we can only have 0.5 mM fluoride ions before precipitation will start. That's ...


2

Air, fresh water, sea water, whiskey are fluid phases, aside of solid phases. A phase is a space region of homogenous properties of matter, possibly with gradient of theses properties (like sea water profile, or solution of statically dissolved solid), with strong discontinuity of these properties at the region boundary. The gradient can be at special ...


1

Consider three compositions: A. 2NaF + CaCO3 B. CaF2 + Na2CO3, and C. NaF + 0.5 CaCO3 + 0.5 CaF2 + 0.5 Na2CO3. Using data from the CRC Handbook (62nd ed), the heats of formation of A and B are respectively 560.47 and 560.6 kcal, so there is little driving force to make a reaction go to completion. Note that A should be near neutral pH, but B ...


1

Adding impurities(which mostly have low heat capacity, like salt) decreases the enthalpy of vaporization. This is because the impurities lower the heat capacity of the solution as a whole, making the enthalpy of vaporization lesser than the original solvent. This is why even though the boiling point of a solution increases when impurities are added it is ...


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