11

It turns out that the opposite of what happens in polar solvents takes place when a non-polar solvent is used. At the same temperature, o-nitrophenol is more soluble in benzene than it's m and p isomers. Sidgwick et al.1 did a study of this and obtained the following results. (Note that the solvent they used was toluene and not benzene, but they are similar ...


7

The nitrophenols have completely different physical behavior based on the position of nitro group: $$ \begin{array}{c|ccc} \hline \text{Compound} & \text{Melting point} & \text{Boiling point} & \text{Water solubility at } \pu{25 ^\circ C}\\ \hline \text{2-Nitrophenol} & \pu{43-45 ^\circ C} & \pu{215 ^\circ C} & \pu{2 g/L} \\ \text{...


6

Glutamine in aqueous solutions degrades slowly when stored in room temperature. Therefore, we can expect that rate of degradation is faster at higher temperatures. It is evident that the hydrolysis product of glutamine is 5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid (not glutaric acid as shown for enzymatic degradation) and ammonia (Ref.1): The Ref.1 states that: The ...


5

The mixing of two compounds is a process which requires consideration of three types of interactions: solute-solvent, solvent-solvent and solute-solute. You make a good argument for the solute-solvent interaction being stronger in mixtures of butanamide and water, compared to butylamine and water. However, as you say, this argument alone would predict a ...


4

Start with a simple thought experiment: pour 100 mL of 1 M nickel (II) sulfate solution into a beaker and very carefully layer 100 mL of 0.01 M nickel (II) sulfate solution on top of the more concentrated layer. Then, even without convection or deliberate mixing, diffusion will, sooner or later, result in the solution having concentration of 0.55 M. In what ...


4

This paper here which describes the isolation of Glutamine from beets, contains a note that Glutamine is rapidly hydrolysed in water at high temperatures. The paper includes procedures in water at 60C. edit: This paper here describes the degradation kinetics of L-Glutamine in aqueous solution to 5-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid.


3

The answer is yes, it will be in following equilibrium: $$\ce{EtOH + t-BuO- <=>[$K$] EtO- + t-BuOH}$$ $$K = \frac{[\ce{EtO-}][\ce{t-BuOH}]}{[\ce{EtOH}][\ce{t-BuO-}]} = \frac{[\ce{EtO-}][\ce{H3O+}]}{[\ce{EtOH}]} \times \frac{[\ce{t-BuOH}]}{[\ce{t-BuO-}][\ce{H3O+}]} = \frac{K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{EtOH})}{K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{t-BuOH})} \\ = \frac{1.26 \times 10^{-...


2

@ Joseph. If I were you I would start in advance by producing a regular vertical flame (nearly colorless) with a methane or propane or butane burner. A big stable flame, as long as possible. And then, just when you want the rest of the world know the signal, I would spray an aqueous solution of lithium chloride or of copper chloride horizontally through the ...


2

A single solvent? Probably not. Different elements have dramatically differing solubilities in most solvents, and so you would have to tune the solvent to the element at least to some extent. However, for the specific task of identifying a solvent that would (a) burn and (b) dissolve chemicals suitable for giving either a blue/green color or a pink/violet ...


2

According to Wikipedia, solubility of aspirin in water is $\pu{3 g/L}$ or $\pu{3 mg/mL}$ at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$. Thus, it is not hard to make a $0.3\% (w/v)$ aquious aspirin solution (maximum concentration, which equals to $\pu{300 mg}/\pu{100 mL}$ at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$). Therefore, your target, $\pu{10 mg}/\pu{100 mL}$ at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$ can be easily ...


2

This is a broad question as solubility equally depends e.g., on the temperature of the solvent(s), presence of other (already dissolved) compounds. A database like Reaxys used by research institutes may indicate the publications with these (measured) values, or contain these values itself. Based on known data, programs may be trained to anticipate solubility ...


2

This should be a comment, but I decided to post it as an answer, since from my point of view, the present answers fail to shed light on the absolute simplicity of the truth. We can state from the present answers that there will be no precipitates, but not because the concentration is smaller than an atom per liter, we don't know the volume used since it was ...


1

Two caveats: If you sufficiently disturb a supersaturated solution, the solute will spontaneously come out solution. So you would need to heat it without sufficiently disturbing it. The solubilities of some solutes decrease with temperature. So let's assume your solute's solubility increases with temperature (as is the case for most, but not all, solids ...


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