Resonance refers to the representation of the electronic structure of a molecular entity in terms of contributing structures. The tag should be applied to any question that concern resonance structures or resonance energy. This tag should not be applied to questions about aromatic compounds (use the [aromatic-compounds] tag instead)
Resonance as defined by in the IUPAC GoldBook:
In the context of chemistry, the term refers to the representation of the electronic structure of a molecular entity in terms of contributing structures. Resonance among contributing structures means that the wavefunction is represented by 'mixing' the wavefunctions of the contributing structures. The concept is the basis of the quantum mechanical valence bond methods. The resulting stabilization is linked to the quantum mechanical concept of 'resonance energy'. The term resonance is also used to refer to the delocalization phenomenon itself.
Mesomerism as defined in the IUPAC Gold Book:
Essentially synonymous with resonance. The term is particularly associated with the picture of π-electrons as less localized in an actual molecule than in a Lewis formula. The term is intended to imply that the correct representation of a structure is intermediate between two or more Lewis formulae.