# Questions tagged [relativistic]

Atomic and chemical properties related to the relativistic properties of electrons in heavy elements.

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### Relativistic contraction of orbitals

I am confused about what seem to me two very different explanations for relativistic contraction of orbitals for heavy elements. My teacher told me that since 1s electrons in heavy elements travel ...
3answers
687 views

### Which is the most reactive metal: Caesium or Francium? [duplicate]

I searched on Wikipedia for reactivity series but it showed me Caesium as the most reactive metal. I know and have studied that reactivity increases as we go down the first group. Then shouldn’t it be ...
1answer
44 views

### Is it possible to hold and rotate molecules to relativistic speeds around axis in observable way? [closed]

Also, is it possible to see frame-shortening effects on electrostatic forces/van der waals at the edges, or are molecules too weak or necessarily neutral to be manipulated this way?
1answer
58 views

### Implication of completely non relativistic Hamiltonian

I am studying the Application of perturbation theory to hydrogenic atoms subject to internal or external electromagnetic fields. The very first equation it uses is the hamiltonian of hydrogenic ...
2answers
5k views

### Shape of the P1/2 Orbital

I always thought that p-orbitals had a dumbbell shape as pictured below. (image source) However, I was reading an article (see Table 1, item 2) that says, "...the spherical $\mathrm{p_{1/2}}$ ...
0answers
945 views

### How does the electron configuration of platinum relate to its stability?

Does platinum's electron configuration, [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1, influence its reactivity and stability? Is the electron configuration the primary contributing factor to platinum's relative inertness? ...
3answers
2k views

### Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions?
2answers
4k views

### Why are noble metals more electronegative then most metals?

I was researching about electronegativity when I looked up what a graph of electronegativity within the periodic table is. And, this appeared. I scanned it, matching up everything I knew about the ...
2answers
532 views

### Why replace c with v in Broglie hypothesis

I am in XI and I am currently studying atomic orbitals, I stumbled up and am stuck at the following step of de Broglie's hypothesis. I did a little search on-line and found almost same derivation ...
1answer
6k views

### Why is Astatine monoatomic?

I learnt that halogens always form covalent bonds to becoms diatomic molecules. So why is astatine monoatomic? I mean they have the same properties, why shouldn't they all be diatomic?
3answers
5k views

### How fast do electrons move around the nucleus?

Electrons, as we all know, are incredibly small. Smaller things do tend to move faster, right? So exactly how fast considering how small they are? Also, does the electonegativity between two atoms ...
2answers
3k views

### Relativistic effects and lanthanide contraction

So I understand than the lanthanide contraction is due to poor shielding of the 4f electrons which decreases the radius. However, if Im not mistaken the relativistic effects lead to a contraction of ...
2answers
3k views

### Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?

I know that for atoms with big values of Z, relativistic effects have to be applied. Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?
3answers
29k views

### Why is gold golden?

Bulk gold has a very characteristic warm yellow shine to it, whereas almost all other metals have a grey or silvery color. Where does this come from? I have heard that this property arises from ...
1answer
979 views

### Relativistic effect: d-electrons in metallorganic complexes

With higher period the d-electrons of the metal are less strong bonded and therefore oxidative addition is easier for $\ce{Ir(I)}$ than for $\ce{Rh(I)}$ and much easier than for $\ce{Co(I)}$. For ...
1answer
23k views

### Why does mercury have low melting and boiling points?

Many metals have relatively high melting and boiling points, but mercury has relatively low melting and boiling points. What are the possible reasons for this?
3answers
6k views

### Why do the trends in reactivity not apply for francium?

Why is francium not included in the reactivity series? Why is potassium considered more reactive than francium? I know that reactivity increases down the group, but why does it not apply here?
3answers
106k views

### What is the inert pair effect?

I was reading about the p-block elements and found that the inert pair effect is mentioned everywhere in this topic. However, the book does not explain it very well. So, what is the inert pair effect? ...
3answers
991 views

### Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic trends....