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It is known that ammonium nitrate decompose exothermically when heated to form nitrous oxide and water. This paper1 notes that the irreversible decomposition of ammonium nitrate occurs at the temperature range of $\pu{230-260 ^\circ C}$. $$\ce{NH4NO3 ->[t >230 ^\circ C] N2O + 2H2O}$$ They also further noted that beyond $\pu{280 ^\circ C}$, $\ce{NH4NO3}$...


33

The symbol is called "double dagger" (sometimes also "double cross") and is used to denote transition state (a maximum in an energy diagram; also often denoted with "*" or "TS") or a related physical property. Note, however, that a transition state and an intermediate are two different terms. The symbol has the peculiar origins: as written by H. Eyring, it'...


28

Ammonium nitrate ($\ce{NH4NO3}$) is widely used in the fertilizer industry and is one of the most concentrated forms of nitrogen fertilizer (35% of $\ce{N}$). At the same time, it has also been widely used as an explosive material for detonation in mines. Because of its explosiveness, $\ce{NH4NO3}$ is associated with various hazards including fire and ...


20

A large pile of grey magnesium powder, when lit in air, produces a smouldering pile which cools down to reveal a crusty white solid of magnesium oxide. However, if you break apart the mound, you can find something quite strange in the middle - a clearly brownish powder that wasn't there before. Seeing is believing! The author of the video also has a clever ...


18

The reaction of benzene over $\ce{V2O5/ PtAu}$ catalyst at lower temperatures, can convert benzene to phenol with some success. See this book here Direct hydroxylation of benzene [The original question before editing was: What is the Ratta Maar Reaction?] Someone has played a prank with you with the named reaction. "Ratta maar" is a slang for "rote ...


14

An ammonia maser qualifies as an inorganic RF-emitting reaction. As the nitrogen changes position in the $\ce{NH3}$ molecule, ~24 GHz radiation is emitted. Similarly, organic methanol, $\ce{CH3OH}$ makes a maser found in nature, emitting at ~36.2 GHz and also at ~6.7 GHz. BTW, if the reactants are moving away rapidly (e.g. interstellar gases), visible ...


14

First, ammonium nitrate is a kind of mixture between an oxidizer - the nitrate part - and a reducer - the ammonium one. This is at the core of your question. The direct decomposition correctly mentioned in the answers is nevertheless a process in which something gets oxidised and something gets reduced. In ammonium nitrate basically you have all you need - ...


12

The double dagger symbol is just to signify that something is or is related to the transition state of a reaction. It appears above Gibbs energy when it is referring to the Gibb's energy of activation (or the difference in Gibb's energy between the reactants and the transition state). It can also appear above the enthalpy symbol, H, when referring to the ...


12

Seeing the reaction given here, I assume that is an on-paper reaction that takes place and that all three alcoholic groups are dehydrated. The mechanism (on paper) seems to be as follows Dehydration $1$ For the first dehydration, the carbocation formed is stabilised via ring expansion and then forms a double bond as follows: Dehydration $2$ Similar to the ...


11

There is a subsection in March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry [1, pp. 450–451] that provides a straightforward definition and a couple of examples: 10.G.viii. Ambident Substrates Some substrates (e.g., 1,3-dichlorobutane) can be attacked at two or more positions, and these may be called ambident substrates. In the example given, there happen to be two leaving ...


11

Initially one would assume that cumene (isopropyl benzene) would be the major product. However, kinetic control does have a say in this reaction, according to Gilman and Means.1 At - 2°, n-propyl bromide with benzene and aluminum chloride gave n-propylbenzene, identified as its sulfonamide. Genvresse (6) obtained both n-propylbenzene and isopropylbenzene by ...


10

Organoboranes react with chloramine to give the corresponding amine as reported by Brown et al. [1], so P is n-propylamine (propan‐1‐amine). The mechanism is similar to the oxidation of boranes using $\ce{H2O2}/\ce{NaOH}$, but instead of migration to an oxygen atom, the alkyl chain migrates to a nitrogen atom. The $\ce{N-B}$ bond is cleaved in the same way. ...


10

I agreed with andselisk's answer. Yet, Ambident Substrates are not limited to March’s given examples in that answer. A substrate, which can be consecutively acted either as an electrophile of a nucleophile is also called ambident substrate (Ref.1). One of the best example is acetaldehyde or propanaldehyde in aldol condensation: In 2002, Barbas III & ...


10

tl;dr A slightly anthropomorphic approach with some basis in general organic chemistry: Step 1: The protonation of the carbonyl (An acid-base reaction) Here, we have three options – we can protonate the nitrogen (deactivated by the resonance with oxygen), the alcohol group ($\mathrm{sp^3}$) or the carbonyl group ($\mathrm{sp^2}$). As you can see this is ...


9

Your mechanism is almost correct; this is essentially an aldol condensation. The only issue is with the protonation states, which (as you've drawn) aren't entirely feasible. Let's start by establishing how acidic that methyl group actually is. You're right that it is more acidic than a typical methyl group, because the charge can be delocalised onto those ...


9

This reaction was conducted by Ho and Liao1. Nitro compound 1 is reduced to the nitroso compound 2 which undergoes a [3+3] electrocyclization to form 3 (4). Tautomerization of 4 to 5 is followed by a retro-"Diels-Alder" reaction to open to 6. Conjugate addition of the nitrogen to the unsaturated aldehyde moiety of 6 to afford dihydro pyridine 7. ...


9

Here is my assessment of the mechanism. You are correct about the Dess-Martin periodinane (DMP) oxidation of 1 to 2. The resulting ketone 2 can also exist as the enols (E)-3 and (Z)-4. Any one of the three can undergo a retro-Diels-Alder-like thermolysis, but I have chosen (Z)-4 for the convenience of cyclizing ketene 5, which has lost acetone in the ...


9

You deprotonate the alcohol, and then flip bonds to create the enolate. There are two enolates possible, so swapping bonds gives you the terminal one, which can attack the aldehyde to form the 5-ring. Elimination of water gives you the product.


8

I like Waylander's answer, which is 100% correct. However, I have a little concern about the question itself. The conditions given in OP's question are not exactly correct. It may mislead the viewers and people seeking answers for similar type of questions. H. C. Brown had specifically noted (Ref.1) the following condition for his groundbreaking discovery (I ...


8

TL;DR - The ring with positions 1, 2, and 6 on it is more deactivated than the ring with positions 3, 4, and 5, so the correct answer cannot be position 2 (as marked) or positions 1 and 6 (as you determined). The correct answer must be on the other ring. Since the central ring imposes a -I effect, the correct answer is position 4. There are two factors to ...


8

This is a question based on two reactions. The first reaction is the formation of benzyne using $\ce{Li/Hg}$. After this a Diels–Alder reaction takes place between furan and benzyne. The reaction mechanism would be as follows [1]: A more generalised form of this reaction, dealing with the conditions needed and the yield of reaction would be [2]: Reference ...


8

Nothing against Safdar, but this is technically not a two-step reaction. When lithium amalgam is added to 2-bromofluorobenzene in presence of furan, the reaction goes directly to the product, a Deals-Alder adduct: However, in the absence of furan, the reaction proceeds to give biphenylene and triphenylene (Ref.1&2). The tentative reaction mechanism can ...


8

You are correct on your initial assumption. This hydrolysis is assisted by the neighboring thiomethoxy group ($\ce{SCH3}$) as depicted in the following scheme: The cyclic methylsulfonium intermediate, which is achiral in this case, is a mimic of bromonium ion in bromination of alkenes (also see Chemistry of Sulfur Mustard on releasing chlorine through ...


7

Your first reaction is correct. You do get an acid chloride. The reaction would proceed with the first step being what you have proposed: $$\ce{R-COOH ->[SOCl2] R-COCl}$$ Now, the next step is a reaction known as Arndt-Eistert Reaction: $$\ce{R-COCl ->[CH2N2][Ag2O/CH3OH] R-CH2-COOCH3}$$ The mechanism for this reaction is as follows: Note: Mechanism is ...


7

This is an another way to answer the question: On the way, I also want to show OP that why central ring bearing $\ce{CF3}$ group has the highest electron deficiency at ortho- and para-positions (meaning, the highest electron density is at meta-position in this ring). Let's look at the nitration of trifluoromethylbenzene: According to this University of ...


7

The product at the para-position is more stable as it allows the compound to exist in the quinoid form, rather than only in the benzoid form: This is important as in your case, if the substituent $\ce{X}$ is $\ce{H}$, then depending on the solvent, as much as 89% of it may exist in the quinoid form ($\bf{2}$). References: Satoshi Kishimoto, Shinya Kitahara,...


7

The answer varies slightly depending on whether the migration is one-step or two-step via an intermediate. In either case, the respective transition state or intermediate looks like this: You can see that the middle structure would be stabilized most by a group that is able to stabilize the ring via resonance, for example, an alkoxy substituent. If the ...


7

I have commented previously that the success of this reaction depends on the protonation of the free amino group of answer (a). In the absence of acid, heating amino ester (a) would give the starting material, the hydroxyamide because esters are more labile than amides. The reason this reaction can occur is that the amino group is protonated in acid which ...


7

As I noted in a Comment that there should be no significant difference between the use of ethanol or isoamyl alcohol in the reduction of naphthalene with sodium in that both alcohols are primary. The difference lies in the conditions of the reaction. The sequence is a classic case of kinetic vs. thermodynamic conditions. The reaction conditions in the ...


6

This is an interference phenomenon, more specifically interference of light between two thin layers with an air gap. Recall the beautiful soap bubble as an example. Whatever coating your have on this object gets very very slightly separated from the surface upon mild heating. This generates an air gap between two layers. Iridescence is a different ...


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