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As I noted in a Comment that there should be no significant difference between the use of ethanol or isoamyl alcohol in the reduction of naphthalene with sodium in that both alcohols are primary. The difference lies in the conditions of the reaction. The sequence is a classic case of kinetic vs. thermodynamic conditions. The reaction conditions in the ...


5

The major purpose of $\ce{NaBH4}$ in the second step of given reaction sequence is the demercuration, which stops at the hemiacetal as the applied condition is the limit (at $\pu{0 ^\circ C}$ for $\pu{1 min}$). In general under usual conditions (at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$ in ethanol for for an hour or two), $\ce{NaBH4}$ reacts with hemiacetals and reduce them to ...


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Reactions can be of order $0, 1 , 2$ or $3$ , but never more. No collision may happen between more than three particules simultaneously. If an equation is written with more than $4$ substances on the lefthand side, it means that the corresponding reaction is a sum of several elementary reactions. Mechanisms in inorganic reactions are hard to establish ...


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The molecule in black consists of a cyclic ketal and a hemiacetal. The hemiacetal is known to be in equilibrium with its aldehyde form, which is the the molecule in blue, in aqueous solutions even without $\ce{NaOH}$. Recall the reaction of glucose (a cyclic hemiacetal) with dilute sodium hydroxide, which is known as Lobry de Bruyn-van Ekentein rearrangement ...


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Why is the molozonide adduct thermally unstable? The molozonide adduct (1,2,3-trioxalane; the initial adduct by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkene and ozone) is thermally unstable because it contains two weak $\ce{O-O}$ bonds (Ref.1). Mechanistic studies reveal that the ozonide (1,2,4-trioxalane) is formed by a sequence of three pericyclic steps involving ...


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[OP] The equilibrium constant would not include the solid $\ce{I2}$, but why is this? Let me explain this with a different example. If you have a saturated solution (e.g. lemonade with too much sugar in it) it is at equilibrium. If you add more sugar, the lemonade does not get sweeter. That tells you that the amount of solid does not matter (as long as ...


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The $\mathrm{S_N1}$ reaction has two steps i) the formation of carbocation and 2) the formation of product. (image taken from libretexts) In the second step an unstable carbocation reacts with the nucleophile. You are asking why this step has to have an activation energy. You can rationalize that by considering the principle of microscopic reversibility. ...


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The acids, hydrochloric or citric, have a common property : they produce $\ce{H+}$ in water. These ions are necessary to react with copper and hydrogen peroxide $\ce{H2O2}$. Indeed metallic copper reacts with hydrogen peroxide $\ce{H2O2}$ and an acid in the following way : $$\ce{Cu + H2O2 + 2 H+ -> Cu^{2+} + 2 H2O}$$ So whatever the acid chosen, ...


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Benzenediazonium salt is so versatile that it can be used to make many compounds. That's why, diazotization reaction is so popular and useful. The reaction conditions is not that harsh and is easily achievable. Coming to the reaction, diazotization is a straight one-way procedure to achieve aniline to phenol conversion. If you talk about other ways of ...


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The rate equation is $$\ln[\ce{Fe^{3+}}] = \ln[\ce{Fe^{3+}}]_0 − kt$$ So, $a-x=[A]$. Don't subtract the next value. Put it as it is. $[\ce{Fe^{3+}}]=238 \text{ where } t=10 \text{ and } [\ce{Fe^{3+}}]=227 \text{ where } t=20$. Using the above mentioned equation: $$\ln[A] = \ln[A]_0 − kt$$ Calculate the value of $\mathrm{\ln[\ce{Fe^{3+}}]_0}$ by eliminating ...


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This reaction is mostly ignored in basic organic texts and the mechanism you give is straight out of Wikipedia with some modification. I am sure some serious study exists some where but not on the web. Please bear with me because I can't[or just don't know how to] do drawings. The first step is probably as written and is most likely slow because it involves ...


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Aside of open flame and operating electronic devices, another danger hard to eliminate is static electricity, mostly due synthetic material of clothes, or rubber soles of shoes. The safest and the most available prevention choice at emergency scenario is intense ventilation. All others are rather hope it would be enough, as it is hard to eliminate or not to ...


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Acids are hydrogen ion donors. When the react with water, they can give a hydrogen ion to form $ \ce{H3O+}$. For example: $ \ce{HCl(aq) + H2O(l) \rightarrow Cl-(aq) + H3O+(aq)}$ Simple acids, such as $ \ce{HCl}$ or $\ce{H2SO4}$, can be recognized as acids by the H at the start of the formula. Other more complex acids may be written with $ \ce{COOH}$ at ...


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H3O+ is just the combination of a a $\ce{H+}$ ion, which we know to be released from the dissociation of an acid in an aqueous solution, with a water molecule. It happens because the $\ce{H+}$ is so, so positive (and therefore so reactive) that the water molecules, with its lone pairs (which are locally negatively charged), are willing to form a dative ...


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