21

Inert gaseous components such as methane and argon are indeed should be eliminated from the system in order not to lower the partial pressure of the reactants too much. Technically there is usually a standalone gas separation plant where the extraction of argon from the recycle gas is performed basically using modified Linde process [1 , pp. 428–430]. ...


15

As others have pointed out, it is purely kinetics, but you may still wonder, why. For a reaction to actually occur (in both directions) and thus for an equilibrium to be reached, you need to overcome the activation energy. In the case of the Haber-Bosch process, this involves breaking the highly stable $\ce{N#N}$ triple bond. Even with the catalysts used, ...


10

The answer mainly has to do with kinetic considerations, as aml points out. I want to point out another thing. In a typical industrial setting, you don't just mix the $\ce{N2}$ with the $\ce{H2}$ at a certain $T$ and $p$, collect the ammonia, and throw the unused reactants away. That would be horribly inefficient. Greenwood & Earnshaw, Chemistry of the ...


4

The softening point of glass depends on its composition. For example, 1650°C for fused silica (pure $\ce{SiO2}$) 821°C for Corning Pyrex 7740 borosilicate glass 713°C for Wheaton 900 soda-lime glass Since you want to use glass found at home, it might be soft lead-glass (e.g. "crystal" tumbler), soda-lime glass (e.g. bottles), or borosilicate glass (e.g. ...


4

This answer will be separate in few parts. In the first one I will just make a review of the scope between lab an industrial scale. In the other parts, you’ll find some things more deeply explained and exemplified. In any case, if something isn’t clear or the English grammar is wrong, please ask me a question and point it (the English mistake) out. Part I - ...


3

Andselisk's answer focuses on the way the ammonia plant can be used to "produce" argon byproduct for sale, but this is by no means essential. The ammonia reaction cycle is continually purged to remove argon and other undesirable substances. So what do we do if there is no argon plant fitted? The hydrogen used in an ammonia plant is made by steam reforming....


3

You need to know the composition of your solution and then look at vapor liquid equilibrium data to find the boiling point of your particular composition solution. See here for boiling point as a function of composition.


3

While it is true that the Haber Process would be much more efficient at a lower temperature it's carried out at a higher one because it happens much faster at the higher temperature and while the industry wants an efficient process they also need it to happen fast enough to be commercially viable. So you are correct but it's an example of practical ...


2

If you want to completely liquefy the glass, you are going to be in the neighborhood of 1400$\ce{^oC}$ to 1700$\ce{^oC}$. A propane torch (not the kitchen sized ones) would allow you to melt small amounts of glass or soften larger pieces for bending, scoring, or cut. Sand to glass conversion is going to occur above 1700$\ce{^oC}$, with higher temperatures ...


2

Ammonia is more soluble at lower temperatures so the temperature change between the outside of the factory and the inside could raise the pressure inside the pipes. Gas dissolved in water are metastable systems most of the times. Nucleation points in many cases suffice to promote the release of the gas from the solution (have you ever tried to put some salt ...


2

From wikipedia article of calcium oxide Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials, such as limestone or seashells, that contain calcium carbonate ($\ce{CaCO3}$; mineral calcite) in a lime kiln. This is accomplished by heating the material to above 825 °C (1,517 °F), a process called calcination or lime-burning, to ...


2

Any collection of 'hooch stills' that were soldered (?) together would probably have been uneconomical almost as soon as they were built, because welding together a series of serviceable fractional distillation towers is not that technologically advanced and much more efficient. However, there are certainly a number of relatively small refineries. For ...


2

The (ironic? funny?) thing is, we have this great treasure of petroleum that we use to create many plastics precisely because nature once invented a chemical substance that could be built enzymatically, but, at that point in time, not be destroyed enzymatically. It was a great success, because organisms that built with it were built for eternity - you could ...


2

Most plastics are reusable . The problem is wastes are mixes of various different plastics and other materials . The cost to reliably separate them into specific materials is greater than the cost to make new plastic.


1

The short answer is that some of the recycle gas is vented at a rate to keep the Ar below about 5% ( I am not a process person so the 5% is a guesstimate ).


1

You already derived this relation (eq 1), \begin{align} (y_1-y_1^*)&=(y_1-y_1^I)+(y_1^I-y_1^*)\\ &=(y_1-y_1^I)+ K_1^{eq}\left(x_1^I-x_1\right)\end{align} Now, to keep the molar flux density between the gas phase concentration $y_1$ and fictitious conc. on the other side $y_1^*$ we assumed a fictitious overall transfer coefficient $K_{cg}$. So, now ...


1

You are true that $\ce{SO2}$ is very soluble in water but it depends on the temperature. Also, $\ce{SO3}$ reacts with water then dissolves in it in a very exothermic way. My understanding is that, if the quantity of water is well adjusted, you will actually get hot concentrated sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide is not quite soluble in it (ca. 8 g/kg at 120 °C)...


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