41

First off, may I say that I applaud your decision to test this through an experiment. It's rare to see that than I would like. Now, on to the matter at hand. It's fairly well known from industrial chemistry that non-polar solvents degrade latex quite heavily. I work with latex seals a lot, and the hexanes we use routinely break the seals down in under a ...


33

Corrosion Resistant Products, Ltd., with the help of Dupont, has established this source of information on what can and cannot eat teflon. Here's a list: Sodium and potassium metal - these reduce and defluorinate PTFE, which finds use in etching PTFE Finely divided metal powders, like aluminum and and magnesium, cause PTFE to combust at high temperatures ...


32

Just to add a bit to Ben's excellent answer... A number of fluorinating agents also react with PTFE, $\ce{XeF2}$ and $\ce{CoF3}$ being examples Ben mentioned the reaction of magnesium metal. Typically with metals, they must be in intimate contact with the PTFE surface, so molten metals or metals dissolved in anhydrous solvents will react. The magnesium ...


24

When you rip, tear or mechanically deform a polymer (for example a piece of plastic) you are putting energy into the material. The energy from this deformation causes the polymer chains in the vicinity of the deformation to attempt to align. To some degree this partial alignment makes continued deformation easier. To continue tearing the polymer apart you ...


23

Kevlar is an A,B co-polymer where the monomers are terephthalic acid and 1,4-diaminobenzene. The amide linkage, together with the aromatic rings in the polymer, makes a very rigid polymeric structure that stacks the chains in an organized way, maximizing the effectiveness of hydrogen bonding between amide linkages, together with pi-stacking of the rings: ...


17

Agreed: a physical action can cause a chemical reaction. For example, any attempt to manipulate $\ce{NI3}$ physically causes it to decompose (detonate). For that matter, dividing metals into tiny pieces changes chemical behavior, because bonds that would have been hidden in the interior are exposed at the surface. Finely divided iron, for example, becomes ...


17

The scientist who coined the term polymer, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, used the word to refer to different substances which had the same empirical formula. In this sense, benzene is a polymer of ethyne (acetylene), because benzene $\ce{C6H6}$ and ethyne $\ce{C2H2}$ have the same empirical formula, namely $\ce{CH}$. In other words, all substances with molecular ...


15

Based on appearance and extent of deformation, your bottle is likely made of PVC plastic which is not compatible with oils. Plastic bottles are made from blow molding. This process leaves residual stress in the polymer chains of the materials but creates a smooth and transparent surface. Lavender oil can diffuse into PVC and make it softer. Once it is ...


14

The International Chewing Gum Association tells us: Gum base is what gives chewing gum its “chew.” It is made of a combination of food-grade polymers, waxes, and softeners that give it the texture desired by consumers and enable it to effectively deliver sweetness, flavor, and various other benefits, including dental benefits. A more complete description ...


13

Starch is what plants primarily use as a glucose storage. As such, it is essential that they can break it back down into glucose otherwise it would defeat its own purpose and be removed by evolution very quickly. Think about it: Requiring a lot of energy to build up something that serves no further purpose — not exactly giving a plant an advantage in ...


13

Polyethylene is prepared by polymerizing ethylene. Ethylene has a double bond, thanks to which the polymerization goes on. You could not do that with a methylene group. So the name comes after the smallest unit which is actually used to prepare the polymer.


13

You have a possible answer to your question in proteins, an example which includes some long polymer chains. Intramolecular interactions - while not necessarily the driving force for formation of a collapsed protein globule (usually argued to be due to the hydrophobic effect, requiring intermolecular interactions) - are the basis for higher order structure ...


13

I use ChemDraw Professional 19.1.1.32. If you follow File>Open Templates>Advanced BioDraw, you will find the black helix that I have reoriented from horizontal to vertical. The red helix was enlarged and colored red. I hope this is of help.


12

Teflon (PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene) is prepared by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene as shown below. If we took polyethylene and replaced all of the hydrogens with fluorines, we would have PTFE. Here is a Table that compares the strengths of some single bonds involving a methyl group. \begin{array}\hline Experimental ~Bond~ Enthalpies for~ CH_3 ...


12

TL;DR I think you might need two more things to interpret this line: the first code part of the standard, and the standard itself - ASTM D2000 (needs to be purchased). These descriptors are not chemical elements, they seem to be the part of ASTM D2000 "Standard Classification System for Rubber Products in Automotive Applications", so what you are looking at ...


12

This illustration may be a combination of two images, or simply a program I don't know about. However, there are many (3D) protein visualisation programs that can show alpha-helices such as PyMol, VMD or Yasara. Here you can ray-trace the image (i.e. transparent background) and then combine the illustration with something else, e.g. an illustration from ...


11

The persistence length is a statistically defined property - in other words, it is defined by looking at many lengths of many polymer molecules over a long period of time. It is the length (L) at which a vector drawn tangent to the polymer is no longer correlated in space with another tangent vector at distance (L). In other words, it tells you how well the ...


10

There's no reason why the structural subunits of polymers could not exhibit resonance, provided there are conjugated $\pi$-bonds present. A polymer such as kevlar, for example, certainly benefits from resonance stabilization within each monomeric unit. Whether there exist any polymers in which the resonance is truly distributed over the entire molecule (if ...


10

I believe this is due to the fact that cyanoacrylates polymerize by anionic (or sufficiently strong neutral nucleophile) addition. In particular, they react with hydroxyl ($\ce{-OH}$) groups; paper, being primarily cellulose, is abundant in hydroxyls. The bond formation involved in the polymerization reaction is inherently exothermic (generating a $\ce{C-O}$ ...


10

Based on what I gathered from this Wikipedia article on super glue : Super glue is typically composed of a class of compounds called cyanoacrylates. Cyanoacrylates are capable of taking part in this process we call "Polymerization", where chains of cyanoacrylate molecules, called "polymers" ( Poly- Many, mere- parts) are formed. Each constituent ...


10

It is an equation useful for describing the behaviour of a large system, not predicting the fate of a few monomers. Polymerization is a stochastic process—if we only have 80 monomers, the resulting polymer molecules will vary wildly in length if we perform the experiment several times (and logically, could not ever have an average degree of polymerization of ...


10

First, it's important to define what you mean by "nylon", a term which is often used generically to refer to many different aliphatic polyamides. The most common are "nylon 6" and "nylon 6,6". Nylon 6 is the polymer of 6-aminohexanoic acid (aka 6-aminocaproic acid), while nylon 6,6 is from alternating units of 1,6-diaminohexane (aka hexamethylene diamine) ...


10

You can combine materials in two ways: chemically and mechanically. On average, if you want to the desired physical properties to add up, you want to go mechanical way, not the chemical one. Once the reaction takes place, the there is absolutely no reason to assume the product preserves properties of both precursors. It might sometimes, but more often than ...


9

This question appears to be about the preparation of polyacrylonitrile dendrimers. Each addition of acrylonitrile completely reacts away the NH2 groups previously present: assume that all reactions are complete. Your answer of 28 assumes that the reactions could be controllable to allow partial consumption of NH2 groups, which requires less addition of ...


9

Polypropylene is hydrocarbon and does not adsorb polar and ionic compounds. So, several treatments with mild hydrochloric acid followed with several treatments with clean water should work. However, I wouldn't store drinking water there without a proven test. For example, leave water there for several weeks and then perform analysis of the water for metal ...


9

The reason it is called polyethene (or polyethylene) is because it was produced from the monomer of ethylene. To produce polyethylene, a radical initiator is added to ethylene, which attacks one carbon and opens up the double bond leaving a radical at the end. This radical attacks another ethylene molecule, etc. The chain stops forming when it encounters ...


9

If a solvent causes an amorphous polymer to craze, this is because the polymer is principally soluble in it. It diffuses into the surface, but without instantly dissolving it, as the polymer chains are still stuck in the glassy network of the substrate. The polymer swells (like a fruit gum in water), but the volume increase can only happen perpendicular to ...


9

Delocalized $\pi$ orbitals do allow for mobile charges. The catch there is "allow." Just because these systems can have mobile charges does not make them conductive. Conductivity can be defined as: $\sigma = n e \mu$ where $e$ is the charge on an electron, $\mu$ is the charge mobility, and $n$ is the number of charges. In the case of $doped$ conjugated ...


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