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61

It has to be so common a question that the answer is actually given in various places on Dupont's own website (Dupont are the makers of Teflon): “If nothing sticks to Teflon®, then how does Teflon® stick to a pan?" Nonstick coatings are applied in layers, just like paint. The first layer is the primer—and it's the special chemistry in the primer that ...


41

First off, may I say that I applaud your decision to test this through an experiment. It's rare to see that than I would like. Now, on to the matter at hand. It's fairly well known from industrial chemistry that non-polar solvents degrade latex quite heavily. I work with latex seals a lot, and the hexanes we use routinely break the seals down in under a ...


32

Corrosion Resistant Products, Ltd., with the help of Dupont, has established this source of information on what can and cannot eat teflon. Here's a list: Sodium and potassium metal - these reduce and defluorinate PTFE, which finds use in etching PTFE Finely divided metal powders, like aluminum and and magnesium, cause PTFE to combust at high temperatures ...


32

Just to add a bit to Ben's excellent answer... A number of fluorinating agents also react with PTFE, $\ce{XeF2}$ and $\ce{CoF3}$ being examples Ben mentioned the reaction of magnesium metal. Typically with metals, they must be in intimate contact with the PTFE surface, so molten metals or metals dissolved in anhydrous solvents will react. The magnesium ...


26

Nitrile gloves are made of nitrile rubber, or poly(butadiene/acrylonitrile). This polymer is highly soluble in chloroform, with some papers I found indicating that one can dissolve up to 18% in mass of nitrile butadiene rubber in chloroform. Moreover, it permeates easily through NBR, meaning we can expect the dissolution to be fast in addition to ...


23

When you rip, tear or mechanically deform a polymer (for example a piece of plastic) you are putting energy into the material. The energy from this deformation causes the polymer chains in the vicinity of the deformation to attempt to align. To some degree this partial alignment makes continued deformation easier. To continue tearing the polymer apart you ...


23

I am aware that this answer does not describe a ‘chemical that can destroy PTFE’. However, since you are also asking ‘is there anything that can destroy Teflon through only chemical means?’, and in order to complete the other answers, I would like to add that PTFE can be easily destroyed by means of radiation chemistry. (Radiation chemistry is the study of ...


23

Kevlar is an A,B co-polymer where the monomers are terephthalic acid and 1,4-diaminobenzene. The amide linkage, together with the aromatic rings in the polymer, makes a very rigid polymeric structure that stacks the chains in an organized way, maximizing the effectiveness of hydrogen bonding between amide linkages, together with pi-stacking of the rings: ...


17

Agreed: a physical action can cause a chemical reaction. For example, any attempt to manipulate $\ce{NI3}$ physically causes it to decompose (detonate). For that matter, dividing metals into tiny pieces changes chemical behavior, because bonds that would have been hidden in the interior are exposed at the surface. Finely divided iron, for example, becomes ...


15

Based on appearance and extent of deformation, your bottle is likely made of PVC plastic which is not compatible with oils. Plastic bottles are made from blow molding. This process leaves residual stress in the polymer chains of the materials but creates a smooth and transparent surface. Lavender oil can diffuse into PVC and make it softer. Once it is ...


14

The International Chewing Gum Association tells us: Gum base is what gives chewing gum its “chew.” It is made of a combination of food-grade polymers, waxes, and softeners that give it the texture desired by consumers and enable it to effectively deliver sweetness, flavor, and various other benefits, including dental benefits. A more complete description ...


14

According to the Compendium of Polymer Terminology and Nomenclature (IUPAC Recommendations 2008, i.e. the ‘Purple Book’), three different types of names can be used for polymers: traditional names, structure-based names, and source-based names. When traditional names fit into the general pattern of systematic nomenclature, they are retained, in this case: ...


13

Polylactic acid polymers are creating a lot of interest these days because they're biodegradable. On the downside, corn starch is often one of the starting materials...and corn is also used as a food source, so there's some controversy over the wisdom of this approach. I think I've found a site that takes the approach you're basing your question on...but ...


13

You have a possible answer to your question in proteins, an example which includes some long polymer chains. Intramolecular interactions - while not necessarily the driving force for formation of a collapsed protein globule (usually argued to be due to the hydrophobic effect, requiring intermolecular interactions) - are the basis for higher order structure ...


12

Before putting Teflon on a pan, the pan is scratched hardly leaving some tiny holes where the hole opening is smaller than the hole inner size (like a bottle). When Teflon is cast into that, it physically can't get out. That's also why when you scratch a Teflon pan, things start sticking to it.


12

Teflon (PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene) is prepared by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene as shown below. If we took polyethylene and replaced all of the hydrogens with fluorines, we would have PTFE. Here is a Table that compares the strengths of some single bonds involving a methyl group. \begin{array}\hline Experimental ~Bond~ Enthalpies for~ CH_3 ...


12

TL;DR I think you might need two more things to interpret this line: the first code part of the standard, and the standard itself - ASTM D2000 (needs to be purchased). These descriptors are not chemical elements, they seem to be the part of ASTM D2000 "Standard Classification System for Rubber Products in Automotive Applications", so what you are looking at ...


12

Polyethylene is prepared by polymerizing ethylene. Ethylene has a double bond, thanks to which the polymerization goes on. You could not do that with a methylene group. So the name comes after the smallest unit which is actually used to prepare the polymer.


11

There are two ways in which the band gap of a material: using optical spectroscopy and using electrochemistry. The way you go about analyzing the data to determine the band gap is independent of material, but the process of collecting the data is very specific to your material, and you should consult papers where others have made similar measurements on ...


11

Starch is what plants primarily use as a glucose storage. As such, it is essential that they can break it back down into glucose otherwise it would defeat its own purpose and be removed by evolution very quickly. Think about it: Requiring a lot of energy to build up something that serves no further purpose — not exactly giving a plant an advantage in ...


10

There's no reason why the structural subunits of polymers could not exhibit resonance, provided there are conjugated $\pi$-bonds present. A polymer such as kevlar, for example, certainly benefits from resonance stabilization within each monomeric unit. Whether there exist any polymers in which the resonance is truly distributed over the entire molecule (if ...


10

The persistence length is a statistically defined property - in other words, it is defined by looking at many lengths of many polymer molecules over a long period of time. It is the length (L) at which a vector drawn tangent to the polymer is no longer correlated in space with another tangent vector at distance (L). In other words, it tells you how well the ...


10

Based on what I gathered from this Wikipedia article on super glue : Super glue is typically composed of a class of compounds called cyanoacrylates. Cyanoacrylates are capable of taking part in this process we call "Polymerization", where chains of cyanoacrylate molecules, called "polymers" ( Poly- Many, mere- parts) are formed. Each constituent ...


10

It is an equation useful for describing the behaviour of a large system, not predicting the fate of a few monomers. Polymerization is a stochastic process—if we only have 80 monomers, the resulting polymer molecules will vary wildly in length if we perform the experiment several times (and logically, could not ever have an average degree of polymerization of ...


10

First, it's important to define what you mean by "nylon", a term which is often used generically to refer to many different aliphatic polyamides. The most common are "nylon 6" and "nylon 6,6". Nylon 6 is the polymer of 6-aminohexanoic acid (aka 6-aminocaproic acid), while nylon 6,6 is from alternating units of 1,6-diaminohexane (aka hexamethylene diamine) ...


10

You can combine materials in two ways: chemically and mechanically. On average, if you want to the desired physical properties to add up, you want to go mechanical way, not the chemical one. Once the reaction takes place, the there is absolutely no reason to assume the product preserves properties of both precursors. It might sometimes, but more often than ...


9

This question appears to be about the preparation of polyacrylonitrile dendrimers. Each addition of acrylonitrile completely reacts away the NH2 groups previously present: assume that all reactions are complete. Your answer of 28 assumes that the reactions could be controllable to allow partial consumption of NH2 groups, which requires less addition of ...


9

This difference between living and non-living polymerizations is small in words but large in effects. In principle cationic and anionic polymerizations can be living. In practice, it is not as easy as it looks on paper. See below. A living polymerization is any chain (or addition) polymerization that is prevented from terminating, i.e. the ends of the ...


9

It's been my experience that initiators are chosen for: 1) initiation temperature, 2) solubility, and 3) cost. 1) Initiation temperature - Most radical initiators are stable at room temperature; they need to be heated to dissociate. For example, the half-life of benzoyl peroxide at room temperature is very long, but it is about 30 minutes at 92 °C and 1 ...


9

Polypropylene is hydrocarbon and does not adsorb polar and ionic compounds. So, several treatments with mild hydrochloric acid followed with several treatments with clean water should work. However, I wouldn't store drinking water there without a proven test. For example, leave water there for several weeks and then perform analysis of the water for metal ...


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