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Dissolving a substance in water means breaking hydrogen bonds. It requires energy. If enough new hydrogen bonds are made between solute molecules and water, this dissolution is energetically favorable. This happens when the solute is polar. If not enough new hydrogen bonds are made, the entropy effect is not sufficient to counterbalance the enthalpy effect : ...


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It's a bit more involved than that; after all, the fluorine atom also has one of its electrons "moving down". The key is to look at the occupied MOs and to determine whether they are mainly hydrogen-based, or fluorine-based (i.e., which atom contributes more to the MO). This is actually not trivial to determine at all, and in general, the ...


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