32

Each of these molecules has a pair of electrons in an orbital - this is termed a "lone pair" of electrons. It is the lone pair of electrons that makes these molecules nucleophilic or basic. As you move down the column from nitrogen to bismuth, you are placing your outermost shell of electrons, including the lone pair, in a larger and more diffuse orbital (...


18

Reproducibility is more important than stability. To obtain black phosphorus, you have to heat your sample under high pressure for quite a while, and even then it may still contain a significant number of random crystal defects, so its properties are not quite the same each time you make it. White phosphorus, on the other hand, is prepared by sublimation and ...


13

$\ce{N5P3}$ is more commonly written as $\ce{P3N5}$, and known as triphosphorus pentanitride. It's a crystalline solid at ambient conditions and not a molecular compound. From the first publication that reported the pure compound and its structure [1]: In the solid a three-dimensional cross-linked network structure of corner sharing $\ce{PN4}$ tetrahedra ...


11

This answer uses electronegativities for the calculation of oxidation states as proposed in the Expanded Definition of the Oxidation State by Hans-Peter Loock in 2011. Comparing Electronegativities The following table shows an excerpt from Pauling electronegativities ($\chi_{\mathrm{Pauling}}$): $$\begin{array}{cc} \hline \text{Element} & \chi_{\...


10

Oxyphosphorus compounds, all of which contain phosphorus-oxygen linkages, are the most dominated subset in Phosphorus Chemistry. You may find good review of oxyphosphorus compounds in Ref.1. In particular, most of these commonly known as phosphates are described in Chapter 3 of Ref. 1 (Pages 169-305) which states that: Oxyphosphorus compounds may be ...


7

In chemistry, some chemical species can still react with nitrogen so argon is usually favored, but, in the case of wines, none of the two should react whatsoever. In both cases, however, the high density of argon is an advantage because it will always fall down to be in contact with the liquid in order to avoid contact with oxygen. By contrast, nitrogen ...


7

As M. Farooq pointed in the comments, the concept of $n$-factor is applied to the reactions a given compound participates in, namely of the following types: acid-base, neutralization (in a context of Arrhenius approach, i.e. the amount of transported hydronium ions); redox (total change in oxidation state per mole of the substance); precipitation and double ...


7

Bismuth certainly has other known crystal structures at elevated pressures and temperatures, at least 4 others in addition to the rhombohedral structure stable at room temperature and pressure. One place to start would be an article from NIF on shock physics of bismuth. For a scholarly article, you might start with 'Phase Diagrams of Arsenic, Antimony, and ...


7

The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use only letters and numbers indicating atomic proportional ratios (the numerical proportions of atoms of one type to those of other types). Molecular formulas indicate the simple numbers of each type of atom in a molecule of a molecular substance, and are thus sometimes the same as ...


6

The hydrides of nitrogen family have one lone pair of electrons on their central atom. Therefore,they act as Lewis bases.As we go done the group, the basic character of these hydrides decreases. Nitrogen atom has the smallest size among the hydrides.Therefore the lone pair is concentrated on a small region and electron density on it is the maximum....


6

Most of the online data banks such as PubChem don't bother with showing proper bond multiplicity since they are focused on searching for the compounds based on connectivity graphs. It doesn't mean that those are bad or unreliable, it's just not their primary focus. The source of confusion here, I think, is terminology. Pyrophosphorous acid is an obsolete ...


6

What really happens in nature has higher priority than our believe what happens or should happen. See Dinitrogen_trioxide with the structure, bond lengths and angles. Be aware both $\ce{NO}$ and $\ce{NO2}$ are radicals with an unpaired electron. $\ce{N2O3}$ being( $\ce{ON-NO2}$ ) as 2 paired radicals is the direct analogy to the dimer $\ce{N2O4}$ being $\ce{...


5

According to the work of Ninet et al. published in 2014 [1], ammonia has a β-phase at 150 GPa, where it transitions into ionic crystalline form, forming $\ce{[NH4+][NH2-]}.$ References Ninet, S.; Datchi, F.; Dumas, P.; Mezouar, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mafety, A.; Pickard, C. J.; Needs, R. J.; Saitta, A. M. Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for an Ionic ...


5

If we try to calculate the oxidation state of nitrogen in $\ce{N2O}$ using the familiar algebraic method, we get oxidation state $+1$ for both nitrogen atoms and that's what I found when I looked it up on the internet. Well … you get an average oxidation state. This calculation arguably implicitly assumes that all nitrogen atoms be equivalent. In some cases ...


5

Although nitric oxide is thermodynamically unstable, it is kinetically stable as its decomposition rate is very slow[ref] and so it is considered stable and won't normally react to anything. So, nitric oxide wouldn't normally hydrolyze easily. But in the presence of air, it forms nitrous acid $(\ce{HONO})$: $$\ce{4NO + O2 + 2 H2O -> 4 HNO2}$$ However, ...


5

Realise that there is a notable drop in basicity from nitrogen to phosphorus and then a slow and continuous further diminishing. The notable drop is due to the difference of the molecular structures of ammonia and phosphane. As I answered elsewhere on this network, the ‘ideal’ bonding situation from an orbital point of view would be to just use p-orbitals ...


4

Nitrogen triiodide $\ce{NI3}$ is an extremely sensitive explosive that explodes with the slightest touch when dry. Nitrogen trifluoride $\ce{NF3}$ is so stable that it is a greenhouse gas global warming concern, with lifetime in the atmosphere of hundreds of years. $\ce{NI3}$ is unstable due to steric strain as you are saying.


4

All group 13 elements (can technically) form nitrides from the direct combination of the elements (elemental reaction). Boron: See @Oscar's answer. Also, see references(1,2) Aluminum: There is a paper(3) which discussed about combustion of aluminum in a high-temperature and high pressure (up to 300 MPa) nitrogen atmosphere to form aluminum nitride. Gallium: ...


4

In the case of boron, a reaction with nitrogen does occur under some eye-popping conditions: Combustion of boron powder in nitrogen plasma at 5500 °C yields ultrafine boron nitride used for lubricants and toners.[1] The characteristic molecular thermal energy $kT$ at this temperature is roughly half an electron volt, which is enough to at least partially ...


3

The oxidation state of $\ce{Zn}$ as calculated by you is incorrect. The correct oxidation state of $\ce{Zn}$ is $+2$ as it is associated with two mono negatively charged $\ce{NO3-}$ ions. Thus the unbalanced reaction with correct oxidation states would be: $$\ce{\overset{0}{Zn} + \overset{+1}{H}\overset{+5}{N}\overset{-2}{O_3}\longrightarrow \overset{+2}{Zn}(...


3

Pyrophosphorous acid is the acid anhydride of phophorous acid: $$\ce{H3PO3 + H3PO3 -> H4P2O5 + H2O}$$ Phosphorous acid in water occurs in two forms, $\ce{H3PO3}$ and $\ce{H2PHO3}$, with no direct bonds between phosphorous and hydrogen in the first case, and one direct bond between phosphorous and hydrogen in the second case, see Why is phosphorous acid ...


2

Phosphorus is most common as white phosphorus (but more stable as red phosphorus) and in this form, it exists as a tetrahedron, or $\ce{P4}$. Chlorine is most stable as a diatomic molecule, as you may have learnt it with the other common gases that exists as diatomic molecules


2

I'm not sure why previous answer cited only the first paper on phosphorus(V) nitride $\ce{P3N5}$. A couple of years later the same team reported three polymorphs $\ce{α,β,γ-P3N5}$ with three-dimensional network. For $\ce{α-P3N5}$ and $\ce{γ-P3N5}$ crystal structures have been refined. Both modifications demonstrate vastly different structural types and ...


2

The increasing size of the elements play a role here along with the overlapping factor. Bismuth is humongous as compared to hydrogen so it's hydride is unstable. However nitrogen being small in size can form strong bonds with hydrogen. This also accounts for the fact that the reducing nature of the hydrides increase down the group. As far as overlapping is ...


1

I think you assume that Nitrogen Sesquioxide is formed by a dehydration reaction of an acid of Nitrogen, hence necessitating the presence of a bridged oxygen. This isn't the case. It is created due to the addition of the radical on the Nitrogen of $\ce{NO}$ to the radical on the Nitrogen on $\ce{NO2}$. Hence why the structure is the way it is.


1

Wikipedia reports that magnesium nitride can be prepared: By passing dry nitrogen over heated magnesium: ${\displaystyle{\begin{matrix}{}\\{\ce {{3Mg} + N2->[{\ce{800^{\circ }C}}]Mg3N2}}\\{}\end{matrix}}}$ or ammonia: ${\displaystyle{\begin{matrix}{}\\{\ce{{3Mg} + 2NH3->[{\ce{700^{\circ }C}}]{Mg3N2} + 3H2}}\\{}\end{matrix}}}$ No references are cited.


1

Very interesting question! Let's start with the nitrogens in hydrazine being approximately sp2-p hybridized, flat. The p orbitals on each nitrogen would overlap in a double bond configuration - but the "double bond" has four electrons, two from each nitrogen. If you consider a molecular orbital, the bonding AND the antibonding orbitals are filled, so the net ...


1

It's simply because of the concentration. In aqueous solution, the formation of a precipitate is favored over the formation of a complex ion, and it can be shown using solubility equilibria and $K_\mathrm{f}$ (but it won't be pretty). This is just like the QA test for copper(II). After a small amount of aqueous ammonia is added, $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ is observed. ...


1

Ammonium phosphates are solids between 0 and 75°C. Because ammonium hydroxide $(\ce{NH4OH})$ is a much weaker base than the common metal hydroxides, ammonium phosphates are comparatively unstable. Both triammonium phosphate ($\ce{(NH4)3PO4}$) and the double salt ($\ce{(NH4)3PO4.2(NH4)2HPO4}$) are unstable at room temperature and evolve ammonia to ...


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