35

Each of these molecules has a pair of electrons in an orbital - this is termed a "lone pair" of electrons. It is the lone pair of electrons that makes these molecules nucleophilic or basic. As you move down the column from nitrogen to bismuth, you are placing your outermost shell of electrons, including the lone pair, in a larger and more diffuse orbital (...


18

Reproducibility is more important than stability. To obtain black phosphorus, you have to heat your sample under high pressure for quite a while, and even then it may still contain a significant number of random crystal defects, so its properties are not quite the same each time you make it. White phosphorus, on the other hand, is prepared by sublimation and ...


13

$\ce{N5P3}$ is more commonly written as $\ce{P3N5}$, and known as triphosphorus pentanitride. It's a crystalline solid at ambient conditions and not a molecular compound. From the first publication that reported the pure compound and its structure [1]: In the solid a three-dimensional cross-linked network structure of corner sharing $\ce{PN4}$ tetrahedra ...


11

This answer uses electronegativities for the calculation of oxidation states as proposed in the Expanded Definition of the Oxidation State by Hans-Peter Loock in 2011. Comparing Electronegativities The following table shows an excerpt from Pauling electronegativities ($\chi_{\mathrm{Pauling}}$): $$\begin{array}{cc} \hline \text{Element} & \chi_{\...


11

Let me create background first. Oxidizing agents are the chemical that helps something else oxidize and itself gets reduced.(reduction in charge) $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{HNO3}$ is in the +5 oxidation state - how do we know that? $\ce{H}$ is +1, $\ce{O}$ is -2 and the overall $\ce{HNO3}$ has a zero net charge. The same goes for $\ce{H3PO4}$ resulting in +5 ...


10

Oxyphosphorus compounds, all of which contain phosphorus-oxygen linkages, are the most dominated subset in Phosphorus Chemistry. You may find good review of oxyphosphorus compounds in Ref.1. In particular, most of these commonly known as phosphates are described in Chapter 3 of Ref. 1 (Pages 169-305) which states that: Oxyphosphorus compounds may be ...


8

As M. Farooq pointed in the comments, the concept of $n$-factor is applied to the reactions a given compound participates in, namely of the following types: acid-base, neutralization (in a context of Arrhenius approach, i.e. the amount of transported hydronium ions); redox (total change in oxidation state per mole of the substance); precipitation and double ...


8

What really happens in nature has higher priority than our believe what happens or should happen. See Dinitrogen_trioxide with the structure, bond lengths and angles. Be aware both $\ce{NO}$ and $\ce{NO2}$ are radicals with an unpaired electron. $\ce{N2O3}$ being( $\ce{ON-NO2}$ ) as 2 paired radicals is the direct analogy to the dimer $\ce{N2O4}$ being $\ce{...


8

The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use only letters and numbers indicating atomic proportional ratios (the numerical proportions of atoms of one type to those of other types). Molecular formulas indicate the simple numbers of each type of atom in a molecule of a molecular substance, and are thus sometimes the same as ...


7

Bismuth certainly has other known crystal structures at elevated pressures and temperatures, at least 4 others in addition to the rhombohedral structure stable at room temperature and pressure. One place to start would be an article from NIF on shock physics of bismuth. For a scholarly article, you might start with 'Phase Diagrams of Arsenic, Antimony, and ...


7

In chemistry, some chemical species can still react with nitrogen so argon is usually favored, but, in the case of wines, none of the two should react whatsoever. In both cases, however, the high density of argon is an advantage because it will always fall down to be in contact with the liquid in order to avoid contact with oxygen. By contrast, nitrogen ...


6

Most of the online data banks such as PubChem don't bother with showing proper bond multiplicity since they are focused on searching for the compounds based on connectivity graphs. It doesn't mean that those are bad or unreliable, it's just not their primary focus. The source of confusion here, I think, is terminology. Pyrophosphorous acid is an obsolete ...


6

Although nitric oxide is thermodynamically unstable, it is kinetically stable as its decomposition rate is very slow[ref] and so it is considered stable and won't normally react to anything. So, nitric oxide wouldn't normally hydrolyze easily. But in the presence of air, it forms nitrous acid $(\ce{HONO})$: $$\ce{4NO + O2 + 2 H2O -> 4 HNO2}$$ However, ...


6

Frost Diagrams explain it very nicely as well. Look at the G/F = zE/V, very positive for HNO3, which makes it a potent oxidizing agent (much less stable). H3PO4 is basically the complete opposite.


6

Realise that there is a notable drop in basicity from nitrogen to phosphorus and then a slow and continuous further diminishing. The notable drop is due to the difference of the molecular structures of ammonia and phosphane. As I answered elsewhere on this network, the ‘ideal’ bonding situation from an orbital point of view would be to just use p-orbitals ...


6

The hydrides of nitrogen family have one lone pair of electrons on their central atom. Therefore,they act as Lewis bases.As we go done the group, the basic character of these hydrides decreases. Nitrogen atom has the smallest size among the hydrides.Therefore the lone pair is concentrated on a small region and electron density on it is the maximum....


5

According to the work of Ninet et al. published in 2014 [1], ammonia has a β-phase at 150 GPa, where it transitions into ionic crystalline form, forming $\ce{[NH4+][NH2-]}.$ References Ninet, S.; Datchi, F.; Dumas, P.; Mezouar, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mafety, A.; Pickard, C. J.; Needs, R. J.; Saitta, A. M. Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for an Ionic ...


5

If we try to calculate the oxidation state of nitrogen in $\ce{N2O}$ using the familiar algebraic method, we get oxidation state $+1$ for both nitrogen atoms and that's what I found when I looked it up on the internet. Well … you get an average oxidation state. This calculation arguably implicitly assumes that all nitrogen atoms be equivalent. In some cases ...


4

Pyrophosphorous acid is the acid anhydride of phophorous acid: $$\ce{H3PO3 + H3PO3 -> H4P2O5 + H2O}$$ Phosphorous acid in water occurs in two forms, $\ce{H3PO3}$ and $\ce{H2PHO3}$, with no direct bonds between phosphorous and hydrogen in the first case, and one direct bond between phosphorous and hydrogen in the second case, see Why is phosphorous acid ...


4

This NIST publication lists the dipole moment as zero, while drugfuture.com (I've never heard of this site) reports a value of 0.50 as measured in benzene at $\pu{25^oC}$.


4

Nitrogen triiodide $\ce{NI3}$ is an extremely sensitive explosive that explodes with the slightest touch when dry. Nitrogen trifluoride $\ce{NF3}$ is so stable that it is a greenhouse gas global warming concern, with lifetime in the atmosphere of hundreds of years. $\ce{NI3}$ is unstable due to steric strain as you are saying.


4

In the case of boron, a reaction with nitrogen does occur under some eye-popping conditions: Combustion of boron powder in nitrogen plasma at 5500 °C yields ultrafine boron nitride used for lubricants and toners.[1] The characteristic molecular thermal energy $kT$ at this temperature is roughly half an electron volt, which is enough to at least partially ...


4

All group 13 elements (can technically) form nitrides from the direct combination of the elements (elemental reaction). Boron: See @Oscar's answer. Also, see references(1,2) Aluminum: There is a paper(3) which discussed about combustion of aluminum in a high-temperature and high pressure (up to 300 MPa) nitrogen atmosphere to form aluminum nitride. Gallium: ...


4

The oxidation state of $\ce{Zn}$ as calculated by you is incorrect. The correct oxidation state of $\ce{Zn}$ is $+2$ as it is associated with two mono negatively charged $\ce{NO3-}$ ions. Thus the unbalanced reaction with correct oxidation states would be: $$\ce{\overset{0}{Zn} + \overset{+1}{H}\overset{+5}{N}\overset{-2}{O_3}\longrightarrow \overset{+2}{Zn}(...


4

Aqua regia doesn't actually dissolve lead metal. It converts to insoluble lead salt. From here: When we are working with an acidic chloride solution, like HCl (with an oxidizer) or aqua regia, most of the lead will become an insoluble lead chloride which if it is left to settle can be removed by careful decanting of the solution and filtering, what lead ...


3

I think you assume that Nitrogen Sesquioxide is formed by a dehydration reaction of an acid of Nitrogen, hence necessitating the presence of a bridged oxygen. This isn't the case. It is created due to the addition of the radical on the Nitrogen of $\ce{NO}$ to the radical on the Nitrogen on $\ce{NO2}$. Hence why the structure is the way it is.


2

Phosphorus is most common as white phosphorus (but more stable as red phosphorus) and in this form, it exists as a tetrahedron, or $\ce{P4}$. Chlorine is most stable as a diatomic molecule, as you may have learnt it with the other common gases that exists as diatomic molecules


2

I'm not sure why previous answer cited only the first paper on phosphorus(V) nitride $\ce{P3N5}$. A couple of years later the same team reported three polymorphs $\ce{α,β,γ-P3N5}$ with three-dimensional network. For $\ce{α-P3N5}$ and $\ce{γ-P3N5}$ crystal structures have been refined. Both modifications demonstrate vastly different structural types and ...


2

There is actually an erroneous explanation in your textbook. There is how the nitrogen monoxide molecular structure is explained in school: as there are no extended methods known by pupils or moreover the teacher, it's ok children to think that third unpaired electron on nitrogen atom is resonating between two atomic kernels as it's presented on picture ...


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