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There are plenty of good sources online explaining the principle behind radiocarbon dating. For instance, the wikipedia explains: During its life, a plant or animal is in equilibrium with its surroundings by exchanging carbon either with the atmosphere, or through its diet. It will therefore have the same proportion of $\ce{^14C}$ as the atmosphere, or in ...


8

The metabolism of living creatures keeps the dynamic equilibrium of their $\ce{^{14}C/^{12}C}$ ratio with the enviromental $\ce{^{14}C/^{12}C}$ ratio via photosynthesis, breath, food and excrements. It is not just about one time building, but also about continuous recycling of the body content. Such an equilibrium means continuous resetting of the $t=0$ ...


3

As pointed out in the comments, the concept of pH as a thermodynamic property of nanodroplets does not quite make sense unless the nanodroplets are in equilibrium (stable). If they are in equilibrium you can still apply the equation $$\textrm{pH}=-\log_{10}(a_{\ce{H+}})$$ but now you have to be aware that the activity will be influenced by surface (and ...


3

There are two separate effects we need to consider here: thermodynamic and kinetic. Let's assume you are only providing the energy thermally. So providing more energy means increasing the temperature (T). Thermodynamically, if a reaction is exothermic, and you increase T, the reaction becomes less favorable (assuming it stays exothermic over that ...


3

The crystalline property that would allow to cut the "diamond creature" (or whatever those things are in your universe) you are looking at is cleavage (a writer might also use a term in a wordplay). In crystallography, cleavage is the ability of crystals to crack or split in certain crystallographic directions. This mechanical property of crystalline media ...


1

At 77 K, both HCl and Ar are solids. So if you cool those gases separately and mix the two solids, you obtain a simple mixture of two powders. If you mix Ar and HCl at room temperature, you obtain a mixture of gases. By cooling this mixture slowly, HCl will first liquefy at -83°C (density 1.194), then solidify at -112°C. Later Argon will liquefy at -185°C ...


1

While we are alive, we are constantly replacing our molecules. With every breath cycle, you get rid of some of your carbon (CO2). With every meal, you take in new carbon (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids). The carbon in your body gets cycled as your cells die and are replaced. This replacement process stops when you die. After this, whatever carbon remains ...


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