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Let me start by saying that this is a very difficult question to answer because it's not very hard to come up with pathological cases which I will address at the end. Also, as you point out, it is somewhat non-trivial to calculate $r_0$ from theory and also somewhat non-trivial to determine $r_e$ from experiment. That being said, I think I have a good first ...


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The more volatile compound forms greater vapour portion, compared to its portion in the distilled liquid. It forms e.g. 15% molar fraction of vapour, if there is 10% molar fraction in liquid. In case of deviation from the Raoult law, when there is interaction between compounds, an azeotrope with minimal ( ethanol-water ) or maximal ( nitric acid water ) ...


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After some thought, it is probably worthwhile to actually write an answer rather than a short, fairly useless comment. Lets look at the Cu-Ni phase diagram, as calculated using the CALPHAD parameters given in the paper referenced in many of the pictures below (X.J. Liu et al., J. Electronic Materials 37(2) 210-217 (2008)). Overall: This looks a lot like ...


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I like and dislike the question. I assume this is from your Indian university entrance exams. The good part is that it is tricky, the sad part is that the concept of equivalents is so outdated that any North American student will barely recognize it. They should abolish teaching equivalents exactly because this problem you are encountering. Fact number no. ...


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The temperature at which NOx is in equilibrium with its liquid and vapor phase at 1 atm is about –84 °C. Does that mean NOx exists as a liquid at that temperature? What about it's vapor phase then, because it's vapor and liquid phase should be at equilibrium, right? Yes, the vapor and liquid can coexist, provided P and T are on the coexistence (!) line (as ...


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Anatase and rutile phases form in $\ce{TiO2},$ the presence of cationic dopants or impurities significantly affect the transformation kinetics and phase stability [1]. It should be noted that anatase is metastable at all temperatures and pressures. References Hanaor, D. A. H.; Sorrell, C. C. Review of the Anatase to Rutile Phase Transformation. J Mater Sci ...


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I will try to add another point to the discussion which is statistics. Quantum mechanics is a non deterministic theory which can only make assumptions about expectation values and probabilities of obtaining a special value. In general your wave functions or vectors correspond to states while the projection of one wave function onto another (aka the scalar ...


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