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17

The reaction of benzene over $\ce{V2O5/ PtAu}$ catalyst at lower temperatures, can convert benzene to phenol with some success. See this book here Direct hydroxylation of benzene [The original question before editing was: What is the Ratta Maar Reaction?] Someone has played a prank with you with the named reaction. "Ratta maar" is a slang for "rote ...


9

Ludwig Gattermann's The Practical Methods of Organic Chemistry (translated into English, 1896) has two references to reduction of aromatics with zinc dust: The first one refers to Liebigs Annalen, issue 140, page 295 (1866): Ueber die Reduction aromatischer Verbindungen mittelst Zinkstaub, Adolf Baeyer This roughly translates to "On the reduction of ...


5

To quote the key points of an easy to read publication by Salgado and Vargas-Hernández (doi 10.4236/ajac.2014.517135, open access): All starts with the dissociation equilibrium between the acid $\ce{HA}$ and its anion $\ce{A-}$ for which you write $$\ce{HA + H2O <=> H3O+ + A-}$$ By consequence of this, the recorded total absorbance $A_\mathrm{t}$ ...


3

The terminology given to that reaction by your instructors is very odd. But the more important thing is that $\ce{V_2O_5}$ isn't a reagent in converting benzene directly to phenol, rather it is a catalyst. The first few pages of the book linked by @M.Farooq writes [...] Various sources have reported the use of nitrous oxide to supply the active oxygen [...


3

The methylation of Phenol using Dimethyl Sulfate is an Electrophilic Methylation and happens through a SN2 nucleophilic attack. Phenol is first deprotonated by the sodium hydroxide as you already thought. The deprotonation of Phenol is favored because the pKa of Phenol is lower than the pKa of water meaning $\ce{OH-}$ is a stronger conjugated base than $\ce{...


3

The reaction is used industrially to make hydroquinone (source: wikipedia), but often using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidation agent in the presence of a catalyst. A study on catalytic hydroxylation of benzene comes to the following conclusion: experimental evidences have allowed first discarding Fenton-like mechanisms and later proposing the plausible ...


2

Thank you for the question. This is a very basic physical chemistry question but the way it has been asked is interesting. In order to understand the probability of displacement of a H from any X-H bond (X is any atom), you need to know its pKa. The pKa values are as follows (ref.): pKa of water = 14 pKa of OH (phenol) = 9.95 pKa of CH (benzene) = 43 If ...


2

Phenols are hydroxyderivates of aromatic hydrocarbons, with hydroxy group attached to an aromatic benzene ring, or more generally aren carbon ring. Alcohols are hydroxyderivates of alifatic hydrocarbons, with hydroxy group attached to a saturated carbon atom. Hydrocarbons contain hydrogen and carbon, nothing more. Phenols and alcohols contain also oxygen, ...


2

The thing you have to realise is that H-bonding can lower the ease with which the acidic $\ce{H}$ is removed, but it does not render it completely 'locked' within the molecule. What you have to understand is, the hydrogen bond shown here is not that strong as compared to the other kinds of H-bonds which have been observed in chemistry Let us consider some ...


1

$\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ is inversely proportional to acidity of a compound similar to $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ which is inversely proportional to basicity as it is $-\log K_\mathrm{a}$ and $-\log K_\mathrm{b}.$ In this case nitro group is a electron-withdrawing and deactivates the phenyl group the most, whereas $\ce{Cl}$ is a moderate deactivating group ...


1

Phenols have higher acidities than aliphatic alcohols due to the aromatic ring's tight coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen of the hydroxyl group directly attached to the aromatic carbocyclic nucleus. For this reason, electron withdrawing groups (EWG) and/or electron donating groups (EDG) attached to aromatic ...


1

First, the aniline is converted to a diazonium halide salt in the presence of acid and sodium nitrite, per this reference. Then, the diazonium salt reacts with the phenol to give an azo compound, per this reference (see the section entitled Coupling reactions of diazonium ions Note that the diazonium ion is shown reacting with the para position of the ...


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