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I will start by addressing the posted question: the "state of a substance at a specific temperature and pressure" refers to "the most stable phase of the homogeneous substance at the specific p and T". The phase is indicated in the phase diagram by looking up the appropriate T,p point. At $\pu{20 ^\circ C}$ and 1 atm pressure that would ...


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In the answer elsewhere, ĐỨc Lê Hồng has given how to find the volume of the solution and why van't Hoff factor is not important the case of ethylene glycol and glycerol are involved as solutes in the solution. However, you must know how to find the molality to find the freeding point depression and molarity to find the osmotic pressure. To do so, you need ...


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First, the $i$ in the equation you cited is the van't Hoff factor of the solute(s) (ethylene glycol and glycerol in this case). The van't Hoff factor accounts for how many species are generated by the solute. Specifically, it is the important for electrolytes such as $ \ce{NaCl} $. Because $ \ce{NaCl} $ dissociates into $ \ce{Na^{+}} $ and $ \ce{Cl^{-}} $ in ...


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Note that none of these characteristics is absolute—with enough pressure change, all phases of matter have measurably varying volumes. And with enough force, all phases of matter have varying shape. Rather, these are general characteristics that provide guidelines to distinguish solids, liquids, and gases. And these general characteristics are best ...


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