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5

Since the equilibrium constant for the formation of the complex ion is very large, I assume that $\ce{[Ni(CN)4^{2-}] >> [Ni^{2+}]}$ From the comments: [comments:] That assumption is incorrect. The equilibrium constant seems large, but the exponents are high, so it is misleading. In fact, more of the cyanide is in the form of HCN than in complex ...


4

I suspect this is very likely a sentence adapted from of one of the methods from the Russian State Pharmacopoeia (RSP), which has numerous entries for the adverb «потенциометрически» (Eng. “potentiometrically”). For instance, there is a nearly identical match in the normative section for the preparation of acetate buffer solution, ОФС.1.3.0003.15-1.27 ...


3

There is high probability the desired properties of ascorbic acid are directly related to acid being acidic and in the free acid form, i.e. not in the form of the ascorbate. It is hard to advise, not being familiar with this part of the applied food chemistry, it the effect of ascorbic acid happens in the cold dough conditioning stage and/or in the stage of ...


1

In electrolysis, $Cu^{2+}$ is reduced in two steps, first to $Cu^+$ and later on to $ Cu$. Of course $Cu^+$ is automatically disproportioned into $Cu$ and $Cu^{2+}$ in acidic conditions. But in neutral solutions, $Cu^+$ may react with $H_2O$, forming an unwanted red precipitate of $Cu_2O$. This will affect electroplating of copper.


1

The correct expressions are: $$\mathrm{pH} = \frac{1}{2}(\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1} + \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a2})\tag{1}$$ $$\ce{[H+]} = \sqrt{\frac{K_1K_2[\ce{HA-}] + K_1K_\mathrm{w}}{K_1 + [\ce{HA-}]}}\tag{2}$$ Equation 2 is an exact expression (neglecting activities vs. concentrations), but Expression 1 is an approximation. To dervice the approximate ...


1

The former equation assumes $$[\ce{H2A}]\simeq [\ce{A^2-}]$$ due reaction $$\ce{ 2 HA- <=> H2A + A^2-}$$ The is possible with 2 simplifying conditions: The concentration of oxonium resp. hydroxide ions originated from water dissociation is much lower than concentration of the basic resp. acidic ampholyte form. $$[\ce{H2A}] \gg \sqrt{K_\mathrm{w}}$$...


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