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The Ionisation Energy of an atom is defined as the minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an isolated neutral gaseous atom or molecule. In this case, since $E_1$ amount of energy is used to ionise $N_0/2$ atoms, the ionisation energy of each atom is $\frac{E_1}{N_0/2} = \frac{2E_1}{N_0}$. The Electron Affinity is ...


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$\ce{Li}$ vs $\ce{Na}$, $\ce{Be}$ vs $\ce{Mg}$, $\ce{B}$ vs $\ce{Al}$: Rather, increasing metallic character and reactivity have the common cause, decreasing the ionization energy due nucleus charge shielding and greater electron distance from a nucleus. $\ce{N}$ vs $\ce{P}$, $\ce{O}$ vs $\ce{S}$, $\ce{F}$ vs $\ce{Cl}$: The same reason as above leads to ...


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There are a few ways that electronegativity can be measured/calculated, the original being that of Pauling, followed by others scales such as the Allred-Rochow and Mulliken electronegativity. When looking at the values obtained by Pauling, one must keep in mind that these values aren't grounded in quantum mechanics (i.e. electronegativity does not have an ...


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