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The stability of an ion in an aqueous medium is determined by the tendency of attraction between the ion and the water molecules termed as hydration enthalpy. It, in turn, depends on the charge on the ion and its size. Smaller the ion greater the hydration power of the ion. It is because when the ion is small the distance between its centre and the molecule ...


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Put very roughly, we can boil this down to why aluminum and sulfur are depressed with respect to the average of the surrounding elements. Aluminum is $\ce{[Ne]{3}s^2{3}p^1}$. Its first ionization removes the $3p$ electron while leaving the more stable $3s$ orbital intact, whereas magnesium has to break its more stable $3s$ orbital. So by comparison, the ...


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