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For questions having their focus on SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1', SN2', or SN2th (nucleophilic acyl substitution).

From Wikipedia:

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. The whole molecular entity of which the electrophile and the leaving group are part is usually called the substrate.

The most general form of such reactions is:

$$\ce{Nuc: + R-LG -> R-Nuc + LG:}$$