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The classic catch-all term is molecular entity, often abbreviated to just entity. There's a Wikipedia page for it, which references the IUPAC Gold Book entry. Quoting from the latter: Any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable ...

15

Well, let's reconstruct that starting from the very right side, where it says a $\ce{C_6H_5}$. The ring and the $\ce{CO}$ group would be a benzaldehyde if it had an $\ce{H}$ instead of an $\ce{N}$, right? Or a benzoic acid if it was $\ce{OH}$ instead of $\ce{N}$. So what would it be if it had an $\ce{NH_2}$-group? It would be a benzamide. If the $\ce{N}$ is ...

14

The term superphosphate is really old, even well before the concept of atoms was proposed by Dalton. Therefore it is difficult to rationalize the choice of this terminology. In the unabridged version of the Oxford English Dictionary, you can see the earliest usage dates back to 1798 Chemistry. A phosphate containing an excess of phosphoric acid; an ...

12

Quoting [1]: Comma. In accord with general usage, the comma "," should be used to indicate continuous substitution, partial as well as complete, if there is no change of CN. Vacancies (symbol $\square$) are treated here just like atoms. This usage is restricted to chemical formulas for atoms on a specific site. The comma is not appropriate for ...

11

Usually the dot is put there to emphasize that the nitric oxide is a free radical that includes an unpaired electron. This is especially notable by comparison with $\ce{NO^+}$, which does not have the unpaired electron. Note that the nomenclature $\ce{·NO}$ should not be rendered as showing the unpaired electron on nitrogen. The unpaired electron is ...

11

Identify the parent chain. In this case you have a 6-carbon chain starting at the alkene, wrapping through the chiral center and ending off to the right. 6 makes the prefix 'hex'; the alkene starts at the '1' position; thus, hex-1-ene. Substituents. In this case they're both at the 3-position so they'll be listed in alphabetical order: 3-bromo-3-methyl ...

10

I think it is Cubane ($\ce{C8H8}$), a synthetic hydrocarbon molecule (Wikipedia), which has synthesized using following scheme: I am confident about that because your teacher had said that there wasn't a central carbon atom (assumingly). See following illstration:

10

There is a paper [1] reporting a structural investigation of aromatic N-chloroamides. They investigated polymorphs of similar compound they refer to as N-chloro-N-phenylbenzamide: Chlorinated product, I suspect, is indeed is going to be named N‐chloro‐N‐(2,4‐dichlorophenyl)benzamide, as the first answer suggested. References Naumov, P.; Topcu, Y.; ...

10

A short “obligatory” reference from IUPAC Recommendations [1, p. 21], section IR-2.2.3.1 regarding use of parentheses in formulae: (d) In solid-state chemistry, to enclose symbols of atoms occupying the same type of site in a random fashion. The symbols themselves are separated by a comma, with no space. Example: K(Br,Cl) Related question ...

10

why is 'propylene oxide' the preferred name for epoxypropane? Propylene oxide is not the "preferred" IUPAC name (PIN): Wikipedia lists the PIN as 2-methyloxirane, which is in line with the 2013 IUPAC recommendations. why is epoxypropane the only isomer encompassed by the designation 'propylene oxide'? It's more of a tradition than anything else. Note ...

9

In coordination chemistry square brackets denote inner coordination sphere; $\ce{[H2O]5}$ makes little sense in this context. It looks like the correct molecular formula for this compound appears to be $\ce{[FeCl2(H2O)4]+[FeCl4]- * H2O}$ according to the crystal structure determined by Szymański [1]. The IUPAC-compliant name proposed by the author is ...

9

Superphosphate is a name used in agriculture, therefore, it does not mean the same super in the superoxides. There are two important types of fertilizers in agriculture: Nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers. Superphosphate is an one of major segments in phosphatic fertilizers, which is described as follows (Ref.1): The primary products of the phosphatic ...

9

There's a technicality in that the 2013 IUPAC recommendations (Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book)) have slightly awkward preferred IUPAC names for simple amines like these. The preferred IUPAC name for your molecule is "N,N-dimethylethanamine" (as described by P-62.2.2.1 on p 671, but note that there ...

8

According to the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book), as already mentioned in the question, the first relevant criterion to be considered in choosing a principal chain is the length of the chain. When there is a choice for the principal chain, the following criteria are applied, ...

7

This is a typo. The prime 2' would refer to position 2 in a separate ring, but you are only numbering the central ring. Note that you have drawn the structure of 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene. You can test the names of chemicals and their structures using a tool such as OPSIN.

7

This is not an answer to the question "can the sulfoxide be synthesized in significant yield" (and under which conditions). Instead, this is a "naive" prediction based on the data you provide and two assumptions: The predicted thermodynamic values in the articles you cite are accurate at 298 K. The heat and entropy of formation of (2) and (3) from (1) are ...

7

I think you're looking for the word: particle. ... a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and ...

6

No, those are two distinctive species with different names: $\ce{CuCl2}$: copper(II) chloride; $\ce{[CuCl4]^2−}$: tetrachloridocuprate(II). Oxidation number denoted with the Roman numerals in parentheses refers to the element it's placed after and doesn't carry any additional information besides the fact that copper exists as $\ce{Cu^2+}$ in both compounds....

6

According to this entry in the IUPAC Gold book https://goldbook.iupac.org/html/D/D01648.html the symbol for Deuterium is H together with the isotopes notation. However deuterium and tritium are routinely indicated by D and T respectively. Their use is dictated by the framework. Besides nuclear reactions, when only straightforward chemical properties* are ...

6

The name 'formic acid' has been derived from the name 'formica' as it is derived literally from ants. Wikipedia clearly states: The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. If you type 'formic acid etymology' in Google, it will give two links that proves the above ...

6

According to p 52, Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005 (‘Red Book’): The ending ‘ide’ normally indicates a negative ion, and therefore lanthanoid and actinoid are preferred to lanthanide and actinide. In practice this is almost never followed, and consequently both terms are (for all intents and purposes) interchangeable, ...

5

The preferred IUPAC name is butan-2-one. This is explicitly mentioned in the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Generally, the complete information about a structure is explicitly given by the name and does not rely on any implied information. Nevertheless, the practice of ...

5

In English, French and German, the names are less systematic. Here are some examples from English: \begin{array}{|c|c|c|} \hline \text{Formula} & \text{Name} & \text{Oxidation #} \\ \hline \ce{FeCl2 }& \text{ferrous chloride, iron(II) chloride} & +2\\ \hline \ce{FeCl3 }& \text{ferric chloride, iron (III) chloride} & +3\\ \hline \...

5

It is not necessary, but optional, to express explicitly the radical status. In other cases, like alkyl radicals, the dot marking is mandatory, not to be confused e.g. with a functional group. For curiosity, the ground state of the oxygen molecule - triplet oxygen - is a biradical, with 2 unpaired electrons. What we write as $\ce{O=O}$ is singlet oxygen, ...

5

When I complete my reading, I guess, I understand your problem of imagine stereochemistry. When we draw a structure, three different lines we use to show stereochemistry of the bonds. They represent as follows: Solid lines are on plane of your paper; Wedges are above the paper; and Dashed lines are below the paper. That means, $\ce{-Br}$ (highest priority ...

5

"Super" in "superphsophate" probably refers to it being super-active, with its phosphorous more readily available than it would be in an ordinary phosphate. Chemically this is done by combining calcium phosphate with sulfuric acid giving an acid salt that is more soluble than normal-salt calcium phosphate would be. See here, for example. Superoxide is not ...

5

The most important simplified criteria for the choice of a principal chain are: greater number of substituents corresponding to the suffix (principal characteristic group) longest chain greater number of multiple bonds lower locants for suffixes lower locants for multiple bonds greater number of prefixes lower locants for prefixes lower locants for ...

5

There are three rules to follow for assigning locants (numbers) to a compound like this one. Assign locants to generate the longest possible chain of carbon atoms. Here is an example of mine: I can find chains of eight carbon atoms a few different ways. Two of them are below. There is at least one more. Can you find it? How is it similar to one ...

5

There are two questions in here. First enols/enolates. It is correct that all enolates are enolised carbonyl compounds but not all enolised carbonyl compounds are enolates. Take for example pentan-2,4-dione. While in protic solvents this will indeed have two $\ce{C=O}$ groups, if dissolved in unpolar solvents it will enolise to allow for a cyclic ...

4

Since the compound that is given in the question doesn’t have a principal characteristic group (that would be expressed as a suffix and that would determine the senior parent structure), the ring has seniority over the chain when selecting the preferred IUPAC name. In general nomenclature and depending on the context, however, the chain may be favoured to ...

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