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It is entirely arbitrary whether you call it an organic compound or not, though most would not. The distinction you make that organic compounds should be found in living things is not a useful criterion. Moreover you are wrong that carbon dioxide isn't: it is both made and used by living things. Animals make it when they metabolise sugars to release energy;...


44

According to current nomenclature rules, $\ce{H3N}$ would be correct and acceptable. However some chemical formulas, like $\ce{NH3}$ for ammonia, that were in use long before the rules came out, are still accepted today.


43

All quoted stuff copied from IUPAC Red Book, IR-4 unless otherwise specified It's not only $\ce{H3AsO3}$ . What about $\ce{H3BO3,H3PO4,H2SO4,HClO4}$? Or indeed, any other oxyacid? Basically, we have multiple ways of writing inline formulae of covalent compounds. One is the boring way (molecular formula), and one is the fun way (structural formula) where ...


39

The choice of whether to write binary hydrides with the hydrogen first or second depends on whether that hydrogen is considered acidic, with water marking the delineation point. By convention, if a binary hydride is more acidic than water, then they are written in the form $\ce{H}_{\text{n}}\ce{X}$. If a binary hydride is less acidic than water, they are ...


36

The guideline that you have mentioned (‘While naming any compound, the numbering should be done such that position of substituted groups gives the smallest sum.’) does not exist in the IUPAC recommendations. The corresponding section in the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book) ...


34

To expand on @BelieveInvis's answer -- in the early 19th century, when the Royal Society was really in the swing of things, the dominant language of scholarship was still Latin. Since Latin didn't have words for the new metallic elements, new words were coined from the existing terms for the substances and given Latinate endings. From the OED's entry on -...


34

Prerequisites These are the necessary prerequisites for this topic. If you're uncomfortable with any, please first head over to the corresponding links before continuing. Chemical symbols are a shorthand method of representing an element. Instead of using the full name of an element, we simply refer to it with one or two letters. $\ce{N}$ for nitrogen and $...


34

The classic catch-all term is molecular entity, often abbreviated to just entity. There's a Wikipedia page for it, which references the IUPAC Gold Book entry. Quoting from the latter: Any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable ...


30

Definitely not. You got yourself in trouble specifying all organic compounds, because there is a truly immense, mind-boggling number of possible compounds. No one even knows how to accurately determine such a quantity. A very rough estimate, making some incredible simplifications such as the use of only carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur atoms, ...


27

The definitive answer is, of course, in the rules established by the IUPAC’s “Commission on nomenclature in organic chemistry”. The reference you are looking for is: “Extension of Rules A-1.1 and A-2.5 Concerning Numerical Terms Used in Organic Chemical Nomenclature”, Pure Appl. Chem., 1986, 58, 1693-1696 which can be found here as a PDF and here as an ...


27

There is no exact definition of "organic" compound, although you can say that organic compounds must contain carbon. There is no requirement that organic compounds can be found in living things, although the name organic comes from the fact that the first compounds in this class that were discovered did come from living things. That said, $\ce{CO2}$ is in ...


27

According to the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book), polycyclic hydrocarbons having an independent secondary bridge are named on the basis of a bicyclic system as follows. The main ring of a polycyclic hydrocarbon ring system is selected so as to include as many skeletal atoms of ...


27

In the course of searching for examples of usage of the "-osic" suffix, I think I found the answer to my own question. From the last link in the question, a web store selling pigments (emphasis added): The source of natural black oxide usually is from an iron ore called magnetite. Magnetite, also known as lodestone, is a ferrous ferric oxide (ferrosic ...


27

Tryptophan For instance, is there a reason 'W' specifically was chosen for tryptophan (other than the fact that 'T' was taken)? Once you have assigned the other 19 amino acids, there are only 7 letters of the alphabet left: B, J, O, U, W, X, and Z. (Certainly not a nice Scrabble hand to have!) If one wants to use a letter found within the name of the ...


27

The names of chemical compounds and elements should be capitalized if they appear at the beginning of a sentence or in a title - that is, they are treated just like any other common noun. For example, a title: Why I Don't Like Zinc or a sentence: Boron is my favorite element. Within a sentence: We used boron and zinc in the experiment. ...


26

Harold Urey and George Murphy used spectroscopy to identify deuterium late in 1931, announcing it at the 1931 Christmas meeting of the American Physical Society. Picking up out of 'From Nuclear Transmutation to Nuclear Fission, 1932-1939" by Per F. Dahl: If anything, the naming of the new isotope proved more problematic than its isolation. At a special ...


25

In addition to the reasons ste listed, the isotopes of hydrogen have the greatest differences in mass compared to other elements. Consider that deuterium is twice as heavy as protium, and tritium is three-times as heavy as protium. Isotopes of all elements can be used in kinetic isotope experiments. The dramatic differences in mass among the hydrogen ...


24

While nomenclature is of particular interest to organic chemists to specify an exact compound, the classification of X into broad category Y or Z isn't a precise science, and not really of practical use. The article cites a textbook by Seager to this effect, stating The distinction between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds, while "useful in ...


24

The D-L system corresponds to the configuration of the molecule: spatial arrangement of its atoms around the chirality center. While (+) and (-) notation corresponds to the optical activity of the substance, whether it rotates the plane of polarized light clockwise (+) or counterclockwise (-). D-L system tells us about the relative configuration of the ...


23

In the original German paper [1] Adolf Strecker used Aldehyd-Ammoniak or aldehyde-ammonia as a precursor, that's where the name derives from: Vor einigen Jahren habe ich gezeigt, daſs Aldehyd-Ammoniak und Blausäure beim Erwärmen mit verdünnter Chlorwasserstoffsäure sich zu einer schwachen Basis, Alanin genannt, vereinigen [...]: $$\ce{\underset{\text{...


21

Neptunium (93) and plutonium (94) were so named because they followed uranium (92) on the periodic table. Uranium was named after Uranus. German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth discovered uranium in 1789, eight years after William Herschel discovered Uranus. At the time, uranium was the densest element known and Uranus was the farthest planet from the sun ...


21

In the older literature, the prefixes “hypo-”, “per-”, “ortho-”, “meta-”, and “pyro-” were used in some cases for the distinction between different acids with the same characteristic element. The prefix “hypo-” was used to denote a lower oxidation state, and the prefix “per-” was used to designate a higher oxidation state. (The prefix “per-” is not be ...


21

Validation Let us build this alien step by step: We will build bicyclo[$4$.$4$.$0$]decane. We will build tricyclo[$4$.$4$.$0$.$\mathrm{0^{2,5}}$]decane. We will build tetracyclo[$4$.$4$.$0$.$\mathrm{0^{2,5}}$.$\mathrm{0^{3,8}}$]decane. We will build pentacyclo[$4$.$4$.$0$.$\mathrm{0^{2,5}}$.$\mathrm{0^{3,8}}$.$\mathrm{0^{4,7}}$]decane. Bicyclo[$4$.$4$.$0$]...


21

Fjords and bays Fjord is a term originally developed by chemists studying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the term bay. The descriptions aren't rigidly defined in the same way as stereochemical descriptors, but were designed to be 'self-explanatory', following the real world uses of the words1 Bay: "a broad inlet of the sea where the land ...


21

IR-3.3.1 Isotopes of an element The isotopes of an element all bear the same name (but see Section IR-3.3.2) and are designated by mass numbers (see Section IR-3.2). For example, the atom of atomic number 8 and mass number 18 is named oxygen-18 and has the symbol $\ce{^{18}_{}O}$. IR-3.3.2 Isotopes of hydrogen Hydrogen is an exception to the rule in ...


21

Any alkyl substituent of butane in position 2 or 3 cannot be longer than $\ce{CH3}$ since that would lead to a longer parent chain. And obviously, there cannot be any alkyl substituent at all in the first or the last position of the butane chain. Therefore, the largest structure based on a butane parent chain is 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane. This principle can ...


20

Well, the molecule you draw is tetrahydrofuran, aka THF, but of course the only way you can guess that is if you already know the molecule. It's a very common organic solvent. If you didn't know its common name, you could try to name it according to IUPAC nomenclature. It's an ether, and it's cyclic, so it can be named as oxacyclopentane. But IUPAC has ...


20

The atomic symbols in a formula may be ordered in various ways. For example, the electronegativity criterion is most often used in binary species (for intermetallic compounds, however, older recommendations prescribed alphabetical ordering rather than by electronegativity). Section IR-4.4.2.1 of Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations ...


20

The latest edition of the Blue Book, the 2013 Revision, clarifies this: Methane is a retained name (see P-12.3) that is preferred to the systematic name ‘carbane’, a name never recommended to replace methane, but used to derive the names ‘carbene’ and carbyne for the radicals $\ce{H2C^2-}$ and $\ce{HC^3-}$, respectively. So it seems to be the case that ...


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