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2

Background Charles Coulson was the originator of Coulson's Theorem, a useful tool for the chemist. It allows you to make "back of the envelope" estimations of hybridization if bond angles are known. Conversely, if one knows the hybridization from, say, $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ or $J_{C^{13}-H}$ data, then the bond angle can be estimated. The key ...


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I highlighted the some of your attempts: $\ce{H_d}$ has $\mathrm pK_\mathrm{a} \approx 9$, so it will not be the most acidic. This assumption is correct. For aspartic acid, $\mathrm pK_\mathrm{a}(\ce{H3N+}) = 9.6$. $\ce{NH3+}$ has very high -I effect but no mesomeric effect, so $\ce{H_c}$ appears to be quite acidic. But at the same time it is at the ...


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A simple way to compare the $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ of $\ce{-NH3+}$ and $\ce{-COOH}$ in such a scenario would be to assume the situation when the amino acid becomes a zwitter-ion. A zwitter-ion is a molecule that has both positive and negative charges on it. In an amino acid, the $\mathrm {pH}$ at which this is seen is known as the isoelectronic point. Let's ...


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You are correct on your initial assumption. This hydrolysis is assisted by the neighboring thiomethoxy group ($\ce{SCH3}$) as depicted in the following scheme: The cyclic methylsulfonium intermediate, which is achiral in this case, is a mimic of bromonium ion in bromination of alkenes (also see Chemistry of Sulfur Mustard on releasing chlorine through ...


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The band gap between conduction band and the valence band plays a role in color of these compounds. The good example is $\ce{SnS2}$, which is bronze color (Image $\bf{A}$; $\ce{SnS2}$ is used in decorative coating where it is known as mosaic gold) and have a band gap of $\pu{2.18-2.44 eV}$ (Image $\bf{B}$; Ref.1). When an electron in the conduction band ...


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The most obvious method is single crystal xray crystallography, of course, and for simple molecules, IR and microwave spectroscopy in the gas phase can be used. For many complex (e.g. bioorganic) molecules, this fails, but there are two (afaik) last hopes to help solve/prove structures if they don´t crystallise and the usual NMR spectroscopy with added ...


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As you say, this issue appears to be unsettled. I find the argument in favor of hyperconjugation compelling, but there is theoretical evidence that steric strain contributes as well. This debate is about 20 years old. Here are two papers summarizing the opposing views: Pophristic, V.; Goodman, L. (2001). "Hyperconjugation not steric repulsion leads to ...


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Gaussian by default uses a dynamic trust radius for optimizations to a minimum (you also ensured this by including the trustupdate option). When you specify a maxstep this is only guaranteed to be the initial trust radius. In fact, the second step will ensure the trust radius is at least 0.05. You can see the trust radius for a given step (if you have #p in ...


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I have just answered What is the CNC bond angle in methyl isocyanate? Pretty much everything written there also applies to methyl isothiocyanate, just a bit more extreme. Here is the structure calculated on the RI-BP86/def2-SVP level of theory: The bond angle is $\angle(\ce{CNC}) = 156^\circ$, so we expect a much larger contribution of the right side in the ...


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This is not a good exercise question, because none of the options is actually correct. It basically asks you to blindly apply a model which cannot yield the correct result. Before continuing any deeper into the matter, let's have a look at the actual structure. I was not able to find a crystal structure, so I ran a quick optimisation on the RI-BP86/def2-SVP ...


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Based on literature, I'd say the unsuccessful Friedel-Crafts reaction between benzoyl chloride and mesitylene is not due to steric reasoning. My argument is based on at least one report of Friedel-Crafts acylation on following polymethylated aromatic compounds (Ref.1): The mono- and di-acylation have been taken place between 1,3-substitutions in each ...


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How do I compare these? You could expect higher enol content in the following cases: 1.If there is an active methylene group ( or any other acidic $\ce{C-H}$ bond ) 2.Extended conjugation in the enol form 3.Attainment of aromaticity after enolisation 4.Any intramolecular hydrogen bonding possibility in the enol form Coming to your question: 3,4 - there's no ...


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