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You have to consider the system as a whole - you can't directly compare $\ce{O_2}$ and $\ce{O_2^2+}$ because they have different numbers of particles. To put it another way when you consider the relative stability of two interconvertible specifies you really have to write down a chemical reaction that connects them, and then consider which direction is ...

2

Atomic orbitals are not the same as molecular orbitals You seem to be assuming that the electron orbitals of isolated atoms are the same as the orbitals that exist in stable molecules. So the issue is which orbitals get filled to create the lowest energy configuration. But the quantum mechanics of orbitals is a lot more complex than that. The orbitals that ...

2

Why are hydrogen bonds in an antiparallel beta sheet stronger than those in parallel beta sheets? They are probably not. The difference is small, and depends on sequence context. Also, the diagrams do not reflect the typical conformation of the backbone in beta sheets. To complicate matters, most sheets are mixed rather than purely parallel or anti-parallel,...

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The way to tackle this is to look at the lone pair repulsions between the 2 molecules. It is known that $\ce{N-N};$ $\ce{O-O};$ $\ce{F-F}$ single bonds are quite unstable due to lone pair (lp) repulsions. An evidence of this is that $\ce{N}$ exists in molecular state as $\ce{N2}$ using multiple bonds, so that it's lone pairs do not repel each other, however \$...

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I found an answer online that satisfied me. https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Inorganic_Chemistry/Map%3A_Inorganic_Chemistry_(Miessler_Fischer_Tarr)/05%3A_Molecular_Orbitals/5.03%3A_Heteronuclear_Diatomic_Molecules It shows that 1s orbital of Hydrogen has energy of -13.64 eV whereas 2s and 2p orbitals of oxygen have -32.36 eV and -15.87 eV respectively....

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In fact, yes. It can be explained by a HOMO-LUMO interaction. I am currently running NBO (natural bond orbital) computations for a theoretical study of hydrogen bonds in some models. And NBO interprets hydrogen bond as the donation of electrons from the lone pair (non-bonding electrons) of the hydrogen acceptor to the (LUMO) antibonding orbital of the ...

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