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2

I'd like first to answer your question: My question is, when writing the formula for $K_\mathrm{D}$, is the organic phase always in the numerator and the aqueous phase in the denominator? The answer is yes. The IUPAC Recommendations 1993 (Ref.1) defines Partition Ratio ($K_\mathrm{D}$) as follows (also see the Goldbook): Partition Ratio ($K_\mathrm{D}$): ...


3

If I understand your question, you would like to know how the Avogadro number is measured. There are no simple and immediate answer. One of the possibility is using X-rays to measure with precision the distance $d$ between two atoms in a cubic crystal like $\ce{Si}$, where the atoms $\ce{Si}$ are regularly alined along the three axes Ox, Oy, Oz. As the ...


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As a consequence of Poutnik's answer, the molar mass of the double salt $\ce{CaCO3·MgCO3}$ is $40 + 60 + 24.3 + 60 = 184.3 g/mol$, and the equivalent is $184.3/4 = 46.1 g/eq$. And if the double salt is hydrated with $n$ molecules water, this would increase the molar mass by $n·18 g$. And this new mass should be divided by $4$ to get the corresponding ...


1

Mathematically, there are two possible options: the one where you add the square root and the one where you subtract it. However, chemically only one of the two makes sense. If you were to add the square root, you would receive: $$x = \frac{5.28 + \sqrt{(5.28)^2 - 4 \times 3.96}}{2} = 4.37$$ As this dimensionless value is – according to your initial table – ...


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