# Tag Info

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There are many types of magnetic properties, including ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, superparamagnetism, metamagnetism, spin glasses, and helimagnetism. Many of these are too weak to cause any noticeable interaction with a magnet. The type of everyday magnetism you're thinking of, which nickel has, is ...

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The grey colour is an amalgam of mercury and gold. Mercury forms amalgams with many other metals. Some are used as chemical reagents in laboratory chemistry as they have different properties than the original metals involved. Gold amalgam is much greyer than gold. Silver amalgam has been used in dentistry. Mercury has been used in the extraction of gold in ...

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Let's divide the steel world into two classes: 1) rusting steel and 2) stainless steel. Rusting steel, in the presence of oxygen and moisture, will oxidize, forming hydrated iron oxides/hydroxides which have a greater volume than the original iron, and which have relatively little adhesion to the metal. They curl up and continue to expose bare metal, and so ...

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How long will these reserves last? Short answer: longer than you think and will outlast me, you, our children and our grandchildren. Possibly last forever. Long answer: This is a fairly complex issue. There was a book published about this topic several years ago claiming that we are running out of metals. Turns out that the book had a major flaw in its ...

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None of the US coins are magnetic (ferromagnetic), except for the 1943 Lincoln penny (Steel Cents, made in steel and zinc to save copper for ammunition during wartime), which are considered magnetic. Almost all of those coins other than Steel Cents are made with higher percentage of copper ($\ce{Cu}$) and lower percentages of other metals such as nickel ($\... 21 It is usually a bulk property though you would need to know exact regulations for your country to be certain. Stainless steel is steel (i.e. iron + a little bit of carbon) alloyed with another metal (usually chromium) which makes it resistant to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, but not to strong acids (e.g. concentrated hydrochloric acid) or strong oxidizers.... 20 They use flux, that's how. That is, an inert substance which melts easier than the metal and floats on top, preventing it from oxidation in the air. Common fluxes for aluminum seem to be based on eutectic mixtures of various chlorides (say,$\ce{NaCl + KCl}$). Covering your crucible with a lid does not offer complete protection, and working in inert ... 15 One of the key considerations is that much of the interesting mechanical behaviour doesn't occur within the bulk of the material - it occurs at the interfaces between crystals (known as grains). Grain boundary slip, rotation and growth often defines the mechanics - carbon has a tendency to block the motion of grain boundaries, which are one of the key ... 14 First, the alloy$(0.5$to$\pu{2 g})$should be treated by$\pu{10 mL}$nitric acid$32\,\%.$All metals will get dissolved, except tin and silicon, which will be transformed into insoluble dioxide$\ce{SnO2}$or$\ce{SiO2}$. Dilute in$\pu{100 mL}$hot water.$\ce{SiO2 + SnO2}$will make a gelatinous precipitate, that can be eliminated by filtration. Add$\...

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"To fuse" is another word for "to melt" (e.g. "heat of fusion"). Specifically, if you say you want to fuse two materials, you melt them in the hope that they will mix. In this case, you melt the carbonate, and hope that the chromite will dissolve in it. Because e.g. $\ce{Cr2O3}$ has a melting point of $\pu{2435 °C}$, chromite ($\ce{Fe(II)Cr2O4}$) typically ...

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Why, it's simple: you heat a metal oxide with carbon, and you get the metal you were after, plus a byproduct of $\ce{CO}$ or $\ce{CO2}$ which easily flies away. Coal is still abundant on our planet. Try to pull that with a sulfide! I guess the reaction will not go in the first place, since $\ce{CS2}$ is a great deal less exothermic(*) than $\ce{CO2}$. In ...

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TL;DR Note that the passive layer forms on the surface, there needn't be any change to lattice constant. Chromium needn't migrate , the Cr present on the surface will form the layer to protect it. The key point is how the layer develops from say a single-atom layer of oxide to the usual/maximum width by migration of electron and oxygen in the oxide ...

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Once when I was doing a experiment I have this experience, my ring was decolourised. I was afraid first but we can reverse it to the gold again. There is no reaction between gold and $\ce{Hg}$ and it is type of mixture such that $\ce{NaCl}$ is soluble in water. When the gold and $\ce{Hg}$ mixed they make a amalgam, and this thing is call as amalgamation. It ...

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We can. But I see few reasons why it is not used: Iron is much cheaper than zinc. There can be remaining residue of iron/zinc, coated by copper, or just being excessive. While copper can be melted away and iron stays, zinc would melt together with copper, causing unwanted impurity (unless wanted for making brass alloys) If we remove copper for ...

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"Stainless" is not a specific definition. The stainless steel with the least alloy is $5\% \; \ce{Cr}$ ( grade 501) according to AISI (It can't be cut with an oxygen/acetylene torch-like regular steel). API considers $\ce{Cr :Mo}$ (9:1) as stainless for oil well tubulars. SAE consider $12\% \; \ce{Cr}$ as stainless (most modern auto exhaust pipe). Stainless ...

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Two types of metallic character In fact, there are two type of metallic character if you look at the metal from the chemical point of view or if you look at the metal from the physical point of view: So it really depends on how do you define metallic character Chemical metallic character Since metallic character in chemistry is defined as: the tendency of ...

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The only way to get a "100% pure" sample of an element is by mass spectroscopy, or something similar, which acts on each atom (or ion, actually) one at a time. So you could get a sample of pure rubidium of a few dozen atoms. Caveat: "100 % pure" applies only to those atoms actually observed... there could be other elements in the vicinity that have not been ...

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As a comment of Karl's message, I would like to add that chromite $\ce{FeCr_2O_4}$ is the most important Chromium mineral. When mixed with $8$ times its weight of sodium carbonate, and heated to high temperature, $\ce{Na_2CO_3}$ melts at $850°$C and reacts with chromite and air according to $\ce{8 Na_2CO_3 + 4 FeCr_2O_4 + 7 O_2 -> 8 Na_2CrO_4 + 2 ... 10 You can't find primordial radium because it's half life is too small compared to earths age. Even the radium isotope with the longest half life,$\ce{^{226}Ra}$has a half life of only 1600 years which is magnitudes smaller than the age of the earth, which is estimated to be around$4.54\times 10^9$years[1]. This means that whatever radium we can find in ... 9 My theory was to use electromagnetic separation, aka the Calutrons used in the Manhattan Project. Fine powder feedstock (check), into an arc discharge to vaporize and ionize (lots of good designs for high volume ion sources out there), electrostatic acceleration, then electromagnets to mass separate. Power with a solar panel array. No moving parts (except ... 9 According to A Conducting Crystal Based on A Single-Component Paramagnetic Molecule, [Cu(dmdt)2] (dmdt ) Dimethyltetrathiafulvalenedithiolate) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124 (34), pp 10002–10003 : Single-component molecular metals should greatly extend the development of new types of molecular conductors. For example, while the first metallic molecule-... 9 Quick and simple: Steel = iron + carbon (less than 2%; also called "forgeable iron") Adding chromium (min. 12 %) makes it stainless. These chromium atoms are spread over the full volume of your block, also on the surface of it. There they create a thin layer of oxygen atoms. This layer makes the steel stainless. So when you cut your block in half, a new ... 9 Let's consider that steel may contain$\pu{1\%}$carbon. I know it is a bit much. Let us express this mass concentration as molar concentration for a sample of$\pu{100 g}$of steel. Since this sample contains$\pu{99 g}\$ of iron, this amount equates to $$n(\ce{Fe}) = \frac{\pu{99 g}} { \pu{56 g mol^{-1}} } = \pu{1.768 mol}$$ and $$n(\ce{C}) = \frac{\pu{1 g}... 8 Here you can find a phase diagram for \ce{Si/C} system. It does not have zones with homogeneous non-stohiometric solids. So, there is not thermodinamically stable Si/C isomorphic alloys. However, since the liquid likely to be homogeneous, it is likely for fast cooled liquid to form amorphous alloys. Indeed, google search provides plenty of links for ... 8 Sort of, if you define metals as substances that exhibit some metallic behaviour Metallic elements are, well, the metals. But other substances can exhibit many of the properties of those metals. One well-known example if what you get when you dissolve a lot of sodium in liquid ammonia. Beyond a certain concentration, a new metallic-like phase if formed ... 8 Sigh - as pointed out by @user83678 some 3+ years after first writing this, I answered for Pd, not Pt. That will teach me to pay attention. But, the general answer remains the same. There are enough interactions of platinum with either lead, tin, or silver (a common component in lead-free solders) such that a platinum tip does not make metallurgical sense. ... 8 Quoting from chemguide (emphasis mine): With hot concentrated sodium hydroxide solution, aluminium oxide reacts to give a solution of sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate.$$\ce{Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) -> 2NaAl(OH)4}$$Note: You may find all sorts of other formulae given for the product from this reaction. These range from \ce{NaAlO2} (which ... 8 There are two aspects to this, firstly is actually reducing the pure metal from its oxides, usually called smelting, most metal ores are metal oxides so this is clearly an important part of primary metal production For example in iron production iron oxides are reduced by carbon, usually from coke which is also the fuel which provides the energy for the ... 8 The single most important factor is strength ( mechanical compressive ); coal is heated to make coke, the resulting coke is stronger than the original coal. Also, coke helps to make the charge of iron oxides and limestone more porous to permit gas flow up and droplets of liquid iron and slag down. The coke oven heating drives off volatiles from the coal, ... 8 The Ellingham diagram doesn't actually use molar Gibbs energies of formation \Delta G_\mathrm{f}^\circ per se; it is more accurate to say that it uses molar Gibbs energies of reaction \Delta G_\mathrm{r}^\circ. The difference is that the formation energy is only relevant to one specific chemical equation, for example:$$\ce{Ca + 1/2O2 -> CaO} \qquad \...

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