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18

Many volatile liquids are not combustible Dichloromethane (DCM) is a widely used solvent by chemists. It boils at around 40°C (the same as diethyl ether) but is not remotely combustible or flammable. Ether is both very volatile and very flammable, so much so that most labs would prefer not to have it used anywhere where flames or sparks could be present. ...


17

There's a NASA report that looks into this: "ON THE SOLUBILITIES AND RATES OF SOLUTION OF GASES IN LIQUID METHANE", Hibbard and Evans, 1968 and concludes that such mixtures are possible. Starting on page 8: Figure 5(a) presents the curves for oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Also shown are the two experimental values for nitrogen. ...


12

Isopentane $\ce{C5H12}$ has the density of $0.6201~\mathrm{g\,cm^{-3}}$ at $20~\mathrm{^\circ C}$ [1, p. 3-330]. References Haynes, W. M.; Lide, D. R.; Bruno, T. J. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data.; CRC Press, 2017; Vol. 97. ISBN 978-1-4987-5429-3.


11

Volatility ( even if by thermal decomposition ) is the necessary, but not sufficient condition for liquids to be combusted, forming a flame. Liquid helium is the most volatile liquid ever, but there is no way to burn it ( chemically ). As other answers mention, there is correlation, as flammable liquids are generally less polar and more volatile than polar ...


10

To add to the Bob's excellent answer (and expand a bit on my comment there), I've found two other potentially interesting papers to peruse. The first is R.J. Hodges and R.J. Burch, Cryogenics 7 112-113 (1967), titled "The equilibrium distribution of methane between the liquid and vapour phases of oxygen". They note a "very high solubility of methane in ...


10

Caesium salts are unapologetically ionic, and they typically have quite high mass solubilities in many solvents, including water. Assuming organic ions are allowed, caesium acetate ($\ce{H3CCO2^-Cs+}$) in particular has a remarkably high solubility of 9451 g/kg water at −2.5 °C, increasing to 13 455 g/L water at 88.5 °C. Caesium formate ($\ce{HCO2^-Cs+}$) ...


9

The following data is compiled from [1, pp. 4-44, 5-167]: Table 1. Selected solubility values of the inorganic compounds with significant ionic character at $25~\mathrm{^\circ C}$. $$ \begin{array}{lc} \hline \text{Formula} & \text{Solubility in water}/\pu{g L-1}\\ \hline \ce{CsF} & 5730\\ \ce{SbF3} & 4920\\ \ce{LiClO3} & 4587\\ \ce{Pb(ClO4)...


8

There is not going to be a single definitive answer, primarily because of a wide gray zone surrounding the domain of ionic compounds. Besides, as Nikolau noted, the question is ambiguous. If you want mass concentration, then look at $\ce{InI3}$ which claims a whopping $13100~\mathrm{g/L}$. Pity that it is probably ionic in name only, judging by the ...


7

Not always true. Tetrachloroethylene ("perc", as it is sometimes called in the dry cleaning business) is not inflammable, but quite volatile. Carbon tetrachloride, which was also a common solvent some decades ago, is yet another halocarbon solvent that is volatile, but not inflammable (hence its former use in fire extinguishers). In general, volatility and ...


6

the graph is trying to show three things (pressure, density and temperature) in 2D. The yellow portion shows the super critical fluid of $\ce{CO2}$. The blue portion liquid $\ce{CO2}$ The light green portion shows the gas phase for $\ce{CO2}$. The horizontal lines are called "tie lines." The two phases at the ends of the tie lines are in equilibrium. ...


6

The horizontal lines represent a combination of liquid and vapor at the same temperature and pressure. At the left of the horizontal line is the liquid specific volume and on the right side is the saturated vapor specific volume. Locations between the two ends represent the specific volume of the combination, which is proportional to the amount of each.


5

The horizontal lines are tie-lines, as explained in another answer, but between gas and liquid $\ce{CO_2}$. Note the curves labeled with temperatures lie below the critical temperature and above the triple point. The horizontal lines therefore represent regions where gas and liquid $\ce{CO_2}$ coexist. The single point at the cusp of the dotted line is the ...


3

When you heat up a liquid at constant volume (leaving sufficient space for the gas phase), the density of the liquid will decrease and the intermolecular interactions will weaken. Some of the liquid will transition to vapor, so the vapor above the liquid will get denser and the frequency of intermolecular interactions will increase (it behaves less and less ...


3

Use the ebullioscopic equation (the first equation) in this Wikipedia article, $$\Delta T = K_\mathrm{b} m$$ First solve for $m_\mathrm{init}$, the initial molality of urea. Second figure out at what molality $m_\mathrm{fin}$ the boiling point is elevated by $\Delta T = \pu{1.5 °C}.$ Since the amount of urea is constant, the % change in the mass of water ...


3

The nearest to an ideal fluid is a hard sphere fluid, but this is removed from the ideal gas or even solution concept of ideality in a critical way. Ideal (also called perfect) gases are ideal because they lack intermolecular interactions. A statistical description that ignores the intermolecular potential suffices to describe an ideal gas. A first ...


3

We can do better than that. Ammonium nitrate = 1500 g/L at 20°C.


2

Definitions and facts Boiling point - when the vapour pressure of the solution is equal to the atompheric pressure, then it is said to be boiling. Vapour pressure - sometimes molecules escape the solution to convert into the gas phase, also molecules in the gas phase combine to turn back into liquid phase. Hence there exists a equilibrium between gas phase ...


2

Olive oil is a triglyceride, and the main fatty acid is oleic acid below. Now the bromine does not add to the double bond between oxygen and carbon; instead the bromine reacts with carbon-carbon double bond and add itself to it. If you use e.g. coconut oil which has minimal unsaturated (meaning having carbon-carbon double bond) fatty acids (and assume you ...


2

There are several redox reactions can be taken place when you add household beach on elemental mercury metal. However, this question is more like a homework question. Thus, I give you insight to the answer and you may read a bit and find out what's happening. This reaction is studies and results have been published (Reference 1), the abstract of which states ...


1

Is it predefined/can be computed based on the substance or is it irrelevant? The state symbols, l, s, g, (aq), as they are called are nothing but qualitative descriptors. They have nothing to do with concentrations. It is a good point when do we distinguish (l) and (aq)? You have already answered it. When a given component in the equation is a pure liquid ...


1

I would take a look at this thread A boiling point question. A crude answer to this is that it takes work for a molecule to "squeeze" or "jump" from one phase into another. Liquids are tightly packed but vapor is quickly moving. A possible analogy is that moving into the liquid is like squeezing a marble into a full jar of marbles whereas moving into the ...


1

Wikipedia disagrees with your figures. They give a melting point only for the pentahydrate (18°C, at which point this forms not pure sodium hypochlirite but a solution of one mole sodium hypochlirite to five moles water). The only reported phase transition for the neat compound is a "boiling point" of 101°C which is actually a decomposition point. So I ...


1

I will first enumerate the four points that need to be addressed. The vapor and liquid phases have the same composition in an azeotrope. The azeotrope boils at a constant temperature. The composition of the azeotrope remains fixed while boiling. The azeotropic mixture cannot be separated by fractional distillation. I will assume the definition of an ...


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