# Questions tagged [liquids]

For questions about matter in the liquid phase, or about the concept of the liquid state of matter itself.

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### Device that separates polar molecules with electric charge [closed]

What is the name of the device that recirculates a liquid containing a mixture of polar molecules (e.g. salts of organic compounds) in an electric field gradient, increasing the concentration of the ...
44 views

### Is my bottle of “RooR”-brand glass cleaning liquid pure isopropyl alcohol or something else?

I have this exact bottle: https://www.grasscity.eu/media/catalog/product/cache/2b55fa971a29a7844993ad77b24950ac/i/m/img_3633_1_1.jpg I originally purchased it to clean my vaporizer (I've since stopped ...
3k views

### What is the difference between “vapour” and “gas”?

I have read the definition of vapour on Wikipedia, but I don't seem to have a clear idea about the difference between a vapour and a gas. I know what it means when it says, "gas at a temperature ...
70 views

### To calculate total vapour pressure of a solution

Question: 1 mole each of A and B were mixed to obtain an ideal solution of which one mole went to the vapour phase at equilibrium. If $P°_\mathrm{A} = \pu{100 torr}$ and $P°_\mathrm{B} = \pu{900 torr}$...
1k views

### Why does gas not liquify at a temperature above the critical temperature no matter how much pressure is applied on it? Why? [duplicate]

My textbook says that critical temperature is the temperature above which a gas cannot be liquified no matter how much pressure we apply on it. But why? What is so special about this 'critical ...
44 views

### Ln2 Dewar Filling [closed]

For cooling of a measurement device (HPGE) i need around 30 Liters of LN2 (Liquid Nitrogen). I'm a hobbyist but, familiar with the basic rules of Ln2 (Eyeshield,Gloves, Ventilation, Pressure Danger) ...
21 views

### How much energy is required to liquify oxygen?

Does anyone know where I can find some documentation of a real-world liquification process, and the energy costs? I can calculate the heat that must be removed from O2 gas to get to liquid, but how ...
103 views

### What is inside nanobubbles?

A recent article (ACS Omega 2021, 6, 8021−8027) confirms the stability of nanobubbles with theoretical principles. Nanobubbles, having a size in the range of 50-500 nm, are reported to be metastable, ...
47 views

### Cooling down from −78 °C to −88 °C without cryogenics

Say I have a gas cylinder with nitrous oxide and cool it down to −78 °C with dry ice. Is there an endothermic process/reaction that would extract the remaining heat from $\ce{N2O}$ and bring it down ...
52 views

### What pressure does liquid nitrous oxide need at −45 °C?

What pressure does liquid nitrous oxide need at −45 °C to remain liquid? How can I calculate its pressure required for other temperatures?
24 views

### Why is liquid mercury conductive if you do not have the lattice periodicity to describe the collective behavior of conducting electrons? [duplicate]

We have electric conductivity in metal because the regularity and interaction in a crystal allow for the creation of conduction bands. We should not find these bands in mercury so how could liquid ...
52 views

### Confusion in barometer experiment

Now at A, there is pressure by mercury column which is nothing but it's weight. Then, at C there is pressure which is atmospheric pressure. Also, the density at A is more than at C. What they say ...
99 views

### Energy bands in Liquid [closed]

In solid, energy bands means the 1s orbital with spin up and down become 3 states when there are 3 atoms. But then. If you look at hydrogen atoms, the allowed bound states have energies equal to En=Ry/...
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### Is it possible to have three stable liquid phases in a binary mixture?

With this system, it would be possible to have three liquid phases and two liquid-liquid coexistence regions at various compositions. Similar behaviour is common for solids such as alloys, sometimes ...
372 views

### What is intermolecular distance in water? [closed]

I am wondering what is an average intermolecular distance in liquid water (say under normal pressure and room temperature). I need just order of magnitude. A reference would be helpful.
79 views

### How does solutions of two liquids work? [closed]

When two liquids mix, and they are not hindered by a polarity mismatch (like oil and water), why don't they always form a homogenous mixture? Due to entropy, a liquid will disperse itself evenly. This ...
63 views

### Low viscosity, low surface tension liquid for volume measurement

General Case This question concerns the general problem of accurate volume measurement of a given object. Among other techniques, that of liquid displacement is sometimes used for this purpose. In ...
407 views

### I need help finding several immiscible liquids [closed]

I am trying to fill a vial with as many immiscible liquids as possible so that they form many separate layers. I want to do this as a way to visualise how liquids with different refractive indexes ...
76 views

### How can CO2 exist in two different phases?

Given a container of $\ce{CO2}$ at a pressure of 100 bar and 295 K, I check the chart below and find: I'm within the liquid region I'm before the critical point (304 K) My question then is, why can ...
26 views

### Carbonated Beverage Phenomenon [duplicate]

I've seen this phenomenon a couple of times--I actually saw it happen this night. When a carbonated beverage is poured into a cup or glass, many tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide form on the bottom of ...
161 views

### Finding the reduced pressure to distill a solution containing 0.4 g of naphthalene in 25 g of chloroform at 50 °C

Chloroform boils at $\pu{62 ^\circ C}$. For a solution containing $\pu{0.4 g}$ of naphthalene in $\pu{25 g}$ of chloroform, the boiling point is elevated by $\pu{0.45 K}$, to avoid any decomposition ...
149 views

### What are the least dense fluids?

This question left me wondering what other very light (condensed) fluids could exist, at any environmental condition. Obvious candidates for the list are (at their Bp./1 bar) LH2 (0.07 g/ml) LHe (0....
51 views

### Is it possible to manipulate some specific atoms of a liquid metal by dint of the magnetic field, electric field, etc?

Let's deem, we have a liquid metal that is multicomponent, for example, type A, B, and C. Is it possible that we single out the type A and put them in a specific shape, for example, a circle? Let me ...
29 views

### The minima of minimum boiling azeotropes

This is a very basic doubt, so I'll be really brief about it. The discussion I raise is particularly about minimum boiling azeotropes but it's understood that whatever I ask is about the general ...
128 views

### Can we determine pH of liquid at home without pH-meter or litmus paper? [closed]

Are there alternative ways to determine $\mathrm{pH}$ of a liquid without using $\mathrm{pH}$-meter or litmus paper? In case if we didn't cook the liquid ourselves and don't know concentration of acid ...
673 views

### Chemicals to increase surface tension of water

I want to increase the surface tension of water by 1.2 - 2 times. How about adding one or more chemical substances to the water that can possibily increase its surface tension by the desired amount? ...
41 views

### Water color additive that will maintain color when water is a thin film

I'm producing thin sheets of liquid (50 to 100 microns) from a nozzle and trying to photograph them. I think it would help if I could color the water. However, typically as water becomes more of a ...
59 views

### How to transfer Gel into liquid [closed]

We’ll know there are few easy method to make liquid into gel form But whats the method for reverse it To transfer gel into liquid form
184 views

### What happens with the boiling point of a liquid in a vacuum [closed]

This may be a silly question, but when I was reading my chemistry textbook, there was this following statement: "A liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the external pressure acting on the ...
44 views

### Liquid neon freezer?

Liquid nitrogen is approximately -330 degrees Fahrenheit. Liquid neon is approximately -413 degrees Fahrenheit. I want to know about if this type of freezer is easily possible in practice and if such ...
635 views

### Effect of pressure on viscosity of liquids and gases [closed]

My textbook says the following on viscosity and pressure: increase in pressure decreases the viscosity of water but for other liquids it increases. Viscosity of gases does not change much No ...
158 views

### How much electron hybridization and bonding occurs in liquid helium?

Helium is the only element which does not freeze at atmospheric pressure, and only forms a liquid at around 4 Kelvin due to weak van der Waals forces. I'm interested in knowing roughly how much ...
37 views

### What are some other gases that liquify at around the same temperature as ammonia? [closed]

I am looking for gases that have a liquefication that falls within or on the edges of the liquefication range of Ammonia. I am mainly looking for gases that are comprised mainly of Carbon, Nitrogen, ...
60 views

### Is there any non-toxic and non-solvable-in-air liquid? [closed]

I want to heat the air with non-aqueous, non-toxic and non-solvable-in-air liquid (with very low relative pressure in air). Is there any such liquid exists? It would be great if the boiling point of ...
38 views

### Water replacement for pressure-testing [closed]

Due to circumstance, our Data Centre build has some delays and it currently looks like we're going to have to perform a hydrostatic test of our sprinkler system with live computers in it. As I have ...
58 views

### Liquid alternative to alcohol to lower density of water

I am trying to create a suspension of polypropylene particles in a water based liquid. I want the density of the liquid to be more than or equal to the density of polypropylene (855 - 946 kg/m3) so ...
160 views

### What happens when a super-critical fluid is compressed?

Suppose that I have some substance with a critical temperature of 20°C. That means above that temperature, the substance exists neither as a gas nor a liquid, but instead as a super-critical fluid. ...
2k views

### Are all volatile liquids combustible?

I realized that liquids like petrol, kerosene and even perfumes are combustible when they are volatile. Could that be the reason why water is not combustible is because it is not volatile? Are ...
46 views

### Which DFT functional is best for predicting macroscopic properties of molecular liquids?

Which DFT functional (KS-DFT, to be more specific) performs best at predicting macroscopic properties (density, surface tension, boiling point, relative permittivity etc.) of molecular liquids (...
73 views

### Boiling point elevation and liquid solutions

$\pu{1 L}$ of an aqueous solution of urea having density $\pu{1.06 g mL-1}$ is found to have elevation in boiling point $\Delta T_\mathrm{b} = \pu{0.5 °C}.$ If the temperature of this solution is ...
2k views

### What do the horizontal lines in a P-V phase diagram mean?

I have been studying phase diagrams of pure substances, and for a substance such as carbon dioxide for example, it's diagram looks something like this: The horizontal lines in the liquid phase puzzle ...
229 views

### Why does bromine increase the viscosity of olive oil? [closed]

Does bromine bond to the carbon in unsaturated fatty acids and break the double bonds between oxygen and carbon? Does this increase the viscosity of olive oil? Could someone give an elaborated ...
5k views

### What is the least dense liquid under normal conditions?

What is the least dense liquid under normal conditions, room temperature, one atmosphere of pressure, doesn't combust upon contact with air, also wouldn't kill a human just for being in the same room ...
703 views

### What happens when mixing elemental mercury with sodium hypochlorite solution [closed]

Say you spilled elemental mercury from a thermometer and used household bleach on it, what would be the reaction if any?
604 views

### Liquid Versus Aqueous States? [closed]

I am studying ionic equations and have encountered the statement of the phase of matter in the equation since ionic substances tend to react differently based on their phase. I know that (l) state ...
1k views

### Can a stoichiometric mixture of oxygen and methane exist as a liquid at standard pressure and some (low) temperature?

This answer to the question Pre-mixing cryogenic fuels and using only one fuel tank written by a non-chemist (me) begins with: At STP: LOX's boiling point is 90.19 K Methane's freezing point is 90....
7k views

### Why does increase in pressure cause a increase in boiling point [closed]

When we increase the atomospheric pressure pressure above the solution , the boiling point of a solution increases. Why does this happen?
761 views

### Is sodium hypochlorite 100% concentrate possible?

Popular bleaching brands like Clorox contain liquid sodium hypochlorite in small concentrations, ranging from 5-12.5% (is this a mass/volume, mass/mass, or volume/volume concentrate?). Is it possible ...