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When Melvin says that "salts dissolve in distilled water, due to water being polarized", it is by far not a general law. Some salts are soluble and some are not. Nobody is really able to predict the solubility of a given salt. There are plenty of rules describing this subject, using polarity, lattice energy, or other parameters. They are valid for plenty of ...

5

All of that is true, these facts do not contradict each other. The missed part is quantification. Salts and generally ion compounds are soluble, but solubility comes in range of many orders of magnitude. Also, some compounds, even if largely ionic, react with water. So magnesium oxide reacts with water forming magnesium hydroxide, both being almost ...

4

No astatonium ion with hydrogen is known, but it appears that a cation $\ce{S7At^+}$ is formed by replacing a sulfur atom in $\ce{S8}$ with an isoelectronic $\ce{At^+}$ moiety (the actual oxidation state of astatine, with sulfur being more electronegative, is $+3$). The ion is proposed to explain the incorporation of astatine into the sulfur precipitate ...

4

The reasons for the change in internuclear separation and the imporance of the Franck-Condon factors, as has been clearly pointed out in answers and comments. The FC factors determine the strengths of transitions from $M$ to $M^{+.}$ and to clarify this figure below shows a simple calculation based on harmonic oscillator wavefunctions of the effect of ...

4

Why is it unusual (as it seems to be implicitly implied) that the bond lengths of the molecular ion in its ground state somehow end up being larger than the bond lengths of the molecular ion in its vibrationally excited state? It's not so much about whether the bond length in $\ce{M^.+}$ is larger or smaller than that in $\ce{M}$; it's more about whether ...

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