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As Tyberius wrote, the pressure reduction is due to a force imbalance that exists at the walls of the container, because a molecule hitting the wall doesn't feel attraction to the wall, but is attracted to the molecules on its other sides. The attractive forces from these molecules "pull back" on the molecule hitting the wall, reducing the pressure. The ...


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You may consider the vdW equation as the deviation from the ideal gas state equation $pV_\mathrm{m} = RT$. If you look at the vdW equation $$\left(P+\frac a{V_m^2}\right)(V_m-b)=R T$$ you can easily see why the corrections have their signs. The pressure term correction has the positive sign, as the real gas has due molecule cohesion smaller volume ...


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The Hamiltonian for the collection of charged particles (electrons and nuclei) comprising a pair of molecules or ions has terms describing the kinetic energy of individual particles and pair-potential terms describing Coulombic interactions, that is, all interactions between particles are Coulombic. Where a Pauli repulsion term can crop up is when ...


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I found a nice figure and the relevant statement in a paper by Frenking and Krapp (Unicorns in the world of chemical bonding models, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1002/jcc.20543): The crucial term which is responsible for repulsive interactions in chemical bonds except in two‐electron systems such as H2 is the Pauli repulsion. The three terms (a) ...


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Can anyone explain why the exchange contribution to the total energy is negative? I find it misleading that exchange interaction is treated as something that changes total energy of the system. This lowering of energy is actually due to the Hartree-Fock scheme being in principle inexact, and is not really specific to indistinguishable particles. Let me ...


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I'll try to give my interpretation of the "physical" explanation of why exchange would lower the energy. For the true wavefunction, the motion of all the electrons should be correlated, with the classical view being that the electrons are avoiding each other to minimize repulsion. With Hartree-Fock, we find an approximate wavefunction by solving for 1-...


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I have been watching this question with keen interest, but wanted to let someone else go for the bounty -- However it expires tomorrow and no one has answered, so I will give my perspective. Why does the exchange interaction in Hartree-Fock theory lower the total energy? The answer is given in the question: This integral is always positive, and so ...


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