28 votes
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What makes C=O more stable that C(OH)₂

Bond stability is the answer. The energy required to break a $\ce{C-O}$ bond is $\pu{85.5 kcal/m}$; the energy given off when a $\ce{C=O}$ bond is formed is around $\pu{178 kcal/m}$ (reference). ...
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20 votes
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How long would it take for sucrose to undergo hydrolysis in boiling water?

This is a nice well-defined question, and luckily there is excellent data for which we can provide a quantitative answer. Richard Wolfenden's research group has sought for many years to characterize ...
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19 votes
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Why can NCl3 be hydrolyzed but CCl4 cannot?

There are a few (mis-) conceptions in the question that require addressing other than giving the simple (yet correct) answer that permeakra gave. $\ce{NCl3}$ The hydrolysis of this compound is ...
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18 votes
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Mechanism for basic hydrolysis of α-chloronitrile to ketone?

Your analysis is slightly incorrect, actually. If you do a $\mathrm{S_N2}$ on the chloride, hydrolyse the nitrile, and decarboxylate, you end up with the wrong oxidation state: Instead, if you ...
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16 votes

Why is ATP, but not ADP or AMP, a sole source of energy?

Let me add to iad22agp's excellent answer. Often times in introductory biochemistry classes, the difference between phosphoanhydride and phosphate ester bonds is not adequately explained. ATP (and ...
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9 votes
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What an aqueous solution really contains?

Uh... I think the insight you need is about chemical equilibrium. An aqueous solution is exactly the mixture formed when something dissolved in water. This is easy to understand, but here is a more ...
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  • 578
9 votes

Is magnesium sulfate basic, neutral or acidic?

Looking at the following references, it seems that most agree that a water solution of $\ce{MgSO4}$ is slightly acidic. "The pH of an aqueous magnesium sulfate solution is related to the molarity of ...
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9 votes

Why does dissolving a salt in water get a high pH?

It's a little more complicated than that.. When you dissolved $\ce{Na2CO3}$ in water you had a solution of ions: $\ce{Na+}$, $\ce{CO3^2-}$, $\ce{H3O+}$ and $\ce{OH-}$ (the later are present in water ...
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  • 727
9 votes
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n-Factor of P4O6

As M. Farooq pointed in the comments, the concept of $n$-factor is applied to the reactions a given compound participates in, namely of the following types: acid-base, neutralization (in a context of ...
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9 votes
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Unusual hydrolysis of methyl 2,4,6‐trimethylbenzoate

In the typical reaction of hydroxide ion with a methyl ester, the hydroxide attacks the carbonyl carbon of the ester, resulting ultimately in elimination of methoxide. Given the basic conditions, the ...
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  • 8,888
8 votes

Why is ATP, but not ADP or AMP, a sole source of energy?

Think of ADP and ATP as substituted phosphoric anhydrides. ATP has a strong tendency to hydrolyze due to the electrophilic nature of the central phosphorus atom which bears two electron-deficient ...
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  • 9,026
8 votes
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Partial hydrolysis of XeF6

Both can be formed. It depends on the amount of water added: \begin{align} &&\ce{XeF6 + H2O &-> XeOF4 + 2HF}\\ &\text{or}& \ce{XeF6 + 2H2O &-> XeO2F2 + 4HF}\\ &\...
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  • 777
7 votes
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Is (high) pressure required to form (quartz) crystals?

Pressure does not affect the crystal structure (unless it gets insanely great, so that stishovite formation kicks in; that's not going to happen in an autoclave, though). Pressure, however, does ...
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7 votes
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Which side of the C-O-C bond breaks in esters during hydrolysis in basic medium?

To answer this,Think about how an ester is formed. In the formation of an ester, wherin you react an alcohol with an acid in presence of conc.$\ce{H2SO4}$ $\ce{RCOOH + R'OH -> RCOOR' + H2O}$ Now ...
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  • 1,331
7 votes

Aspirin Hydrolysis at pH 2

To understand the pH rate profile of the Aspirin hydrolysis, we have to look at all the possible mechanisms through which the hydrolysis may take place. A good rule of thumb for interpreting a pH rate ...
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  • 5,249
7 votes

On the stabler tautomer in amide-imidic acid tautomerism

The relative stability of the two tautomers (two isomers differing how protons are bound) may be assessed from the equilibrium constant you may formulate for the two. Deriving from above illustration,...
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6 votes

Hydrolysis of cyanohydrin

So G is the expected cyanohydrim, but the second step looks very vigorous (concentrated sulfuric acid and heat). I would expect two things to happen under these conditions, 1) hydrolysis of the ...
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6 votes
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Comparing the Lewis acidity of carbon tetrafluoride and silicon tetrafluoride

Both molecules can theoretically act as a Lewis acid. This would involve the approach of a Lewis base (i.e. a lone pair-carrying group), its interaction with the central atom and the formation of a ...
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6 votes

Is magnesium sulfate basic, neutral or acidic?

Aqueous solution of magnesium sulfate is going to be slightly acidic, and there is no need to even go to the lab to test it. $\ce{MgSO4}$ is a salt formed by a weak base and a strong acid (both ...
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6 votes
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Hydrolysing a compound by repeated methyl and hydride shifts

The reaction will stop after first methyl rearrangement as it leads to tertiary allylic carbocation which is highly stable, so there will be no further rearrangement, as it does not lead to more ...
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  • 190
6 votes
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Are all hydrolysis reactions non-redox reactions?

Hydrolysis refers to any compound reacting with water, including cases where the water acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent. Magnesium silicide, for instance, reduces water leaving both hydrogen ...
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6 votes
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Why is it advised to use neutral ferric chloride solution while performing confirmatory test for acetate ions?

Theory guides and experiment decides (I. M. Kolthoff). Sometimes thermodynamics predicts a reaction but it does not occur very fast because its kinetics is slow. If you dissolve iron (III) chloride in ...
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  • 32.8k
5 votes

steam distillation of 4-bromoaniline , why render it basic prior

In principle, it is difficult to distill salts (ionic compounds). Therefore you first make sure that you have a free base in the solution. This is guaranteed in alkaline solution. For the steam ...
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  • 4,427
5 votes

Why is HCl used in hydrolysis of sucrose?

The mechanism really isn't much more complicated than what you describe. The $\ce{H+}$ binds to the acetal linkage. Water then binds to the fructose ring, breaking its bond with the acetal linking $\...
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5 votes
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Why does sodium react with water to produce a hydroxide, while zinc produces an oxide?

The overall potential of an electrochemical cell is equal to the reduction potential for the substance being reduced plus the oxidation potential for the substance being oxidized. In other words, $ΔE_{...
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5 votes

Rates of hydrolysis in bicyclic and monocyclic compounds

I’m going to shamelessly steal electronpusher’s drawing for clarification: Two general hydrolysis mechanisms are possible: $\mathrm{S_N2}$ and $\mathrm{S_N1}$. First, let us consider $\mathrm{S_N2}$ ...
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5 votes

How to remove sulfuric acid from sample

Sulfuric acid is an excellent dessicant and is also very non-volatile itself (it boils at 337 °C). In other words it would likely still have been there in yet another month. Your instructor ...
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5 votes

Mechanism for hydrolysis of enol ether to aldehyde

Your issue is hardly with the Wittig reaction, although one could very well nitpick. The addition of phosphonium ylid to carbonyl is generally thought to be concerted: see Which is the currently ...
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  • 65.8k
5 votes
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Reasons for solid or liquid soap

I don't know if anyone is still looking for the answer but here I go anyway because I spent 40 minutes researching this for an assignment TL;DR - The better solubility of potassium salts is the key ...
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