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Unfortunately, there is no caliper-like tool to measure ionic radii directly. They are determined based on experimental data such as crystal structure or crystal lattice energy using empirical relationships. The exact value would inevitably deviate from one method to another. Pauling [1, pp. 150–152] used a hard-sphere model which doesn't account for ...


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From a structure diagram alone it is hard to determine these interactions. The reason for this is that important structural parameters are stretched or shortened in order to flatten the molecule for a 2D drawing. In a first order approximation a molecular modelling kit based on balls and sticks could already be very helpful. It'll let you approximate the 3D ...


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