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It seems to me that you want to prevent water vapor from escaping the container. There are different ways to stop this, but having an escape duct for the steam is useful in order to prevent an accident. For example, let's consider that your heating apparatus has an issue, and instead of periodically heating the container which heats the water, it keeps on ...


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Just use a water or oil bath with an accurate temperature control and stirrer such as these ThermoFisher units or from Thomas Scientific. After all, temperature control is the purpose of a double boiler. Since your question also concerns efficiency, this is a better solution, since the container can be insulated. If energy were at a premium, e.g., at a ...


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Is it to be open or can be closed ? If the former, the major loses can be due evaporation, keep the opening as small as possible and safe. If there is a wide opening as beakers have, try to put aluminium foil cap freely sitting on the beaker top, if applicable. Or a "watches/clock glass", typically used to cover beakers. Additionally, try to wrap ...


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The goal of recrystallisation is to obtain purified crystals from impure solid, as much as possible. The solute is therefore dissolved in a solvent where the solubility is high at the boiling point, but low (or insoluble) at the room temperature. Additionally the impurities should be soluble in the solvent at room temperature. The standard recrystallisation ...


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Yes, one can calculate the specific heat capacity of the compound from its constituent elements that is just some of its constituent element's specific heat capacity. As it is known that specific heats of elements remain unchanged when they enter into compounds. However, the density/volume/mass may change and so the heat capacity.


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What are these people doing differently than in that school incident? The plaster casting of the human body is a totally different process compared to the incident at school. At school, it was a liquid plaster of Paris paste ready for molding. Nowadays, plaster casting is done in medical purposes differently. First they put thin stockinette (e.g., Delta ...


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