14

Step one: trap $\ce{CO2}$. This can be done using specially selected amines, like triethanolamine. Aminosilicones (a common chemical used in hair conditioner), can also do this. Step two: release trapped $\ce{CO2}$. In case of triethanolamine you'll have to boil mixture. Step three: mix $\ce{CO2}$ with hydrogen (hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of ...


13

Yes, this is possible and is a process called reverse osmosis. It is based on a membrane which lets water pass but not the salt ions (and other water contaminants). From Wikipedia: The membranes used for reverse osmosis have a dense layer in the polymer matrix -- either the skin of an asymmetric membrane or an interfacially polymerized layer within a thin-...


12

His work is about developping new catalysts based on copper and iron, to replace to traditional catalysts based on palladium. Copper and iron are both very common elements in nature, while palladium is considered a high supply risk (see the 2012 British Geological Survey risk list for details). The new RSC Visual Elements Periodic Table can be used to check ...


11

There are a few problems with what you're proposing: The reaction requires energy. Where do get the methane from? What will you do with the carbon you're generating? The energy problem can be solved by using surplus energy from renewable source like solar and wind, but, as airhuff also mentiond in a comment, there is much more CO2 in the atmosphere than ...


10

While gravity does cause some separation of atmospheric constituents at high altitudes, the reason why ozone doesn't migrate to the ground has more to do with its chemistry. Ozone is pretty unstable and is formed from some chemical reactions and from the interaction of oxygen with UV light. But it is unstable and decays fairly quickly. This means that is ...


10

Yes it is possible, but is very expensive and would be orders of magnitude more costly than what people are willing to pay for recycled materials. Let me give two data points to explain why it is expensive. Some commercial material is manufactured by mass spectrometry. The starting material isn't garbage, but reasonably chemically purified metals of ...


8

Methane has many lovely properties. It's a very dense source of energy. It is plentiful, it seemed to be cheap to extract (until we worked out the real cost), and similarly seemed to be cheap to transport long distances. It can be stored for many months in vast quantities. But. It's a greenhouse gas - a powerful one at that. On a 100-year horizon, it has ...


6

This is quite a hot topic at the moment - the current buzz-phrase is power to gas. There are quite a few conference papers and technical papers, and at least one dedicated conference, for it. And it's too soon for there to be a known "best" process. Audi and others are using a modified Sabatier process. $$\ce{CO2 + 4 H2 -> CH4 + 2 H2O }$$ Others are ...


6

The xkcd What If? blog, by Randall Munroe, addressed a similar question. He states the result better than I can. For most of the history of civilization, there were about 270 parts per million of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In the last hundred years, industrial activity has pushed that number up to 400 parts per million. One "part per ...


6

From the point of atom efficiency, methylsulfonate is advantageous compared to the p-toluenesulfonate. On the reagent itself, the methanesulfonate is more polar than the p-TsOH; so the later dissolves better in less polar organic solvents than the former. Methanesulfonate even may be used to dissolve some metal salts. If used to generate a better leaving ...


6

Your question is a little bit all over the place, but I believe I can answer it anyway. First, though, allow me to point out that your sum formula for cellulose is wrong. While glucose is indeed a single $\ce{C6}$ compound with the exhaustive sum formula of $\ce{C6H12O6}$, cellulose is, in fact, a poorly defined polymer consisting of multiple $\ce{C6H10O5}$ ...


5

Historically, this sort of process has been done with the Fischer–Tropsch process. The core of this process is to use "syngas" (a mixture of $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{H2}$) in the presence of a catalyst to make higher molecular weight hydrocarbons: $$\ce{(2n + 1) H2 + n CO → C_{n}H_{2+2n} + n H2O}$$ Under normal conditions, this will actually make mostly ...


5

A graphene sheet is easily obtained from a block of graphite using adhesive tape. Since graphite itself is essentially a pure grade of coal, it is the result of biological processes in vegetation some millions of years ago. As is pointed out in answers to this Biology.StackExchange question, the majority of a plant's carbon comes from the air via ...


5

You have to study existed architectures. First, it is necessary to distinguish between photo-conductive and photovoltaic elements. In photovoltaic elements one needs a mechanism of separation of positive and negative charges formed under an irradiation of the semiconductor. Even a simple p-n junction can do this. But, this is all about efficiency. The solar ...


5

The ultimate reason is that cellulose is designed to be hard to digest The specific chemical reason is well covered in Jan's answer, but there is an explanation that is simpler and more fundamental: cellulose is designed that way. Nature has created some organisms that need a structural component that isn't easy for other organisms to break down (for the ...


4

The problem with carbon capture is not so much that we lack the technology to do it, it's more that we lack the technology to do it in a way that is economically feasible. Take your example - according to the US Energy Information Adminstration, it takes about 1.09 lbs of coal to generate 1 kWh of electricity. A typical coal-fired plant might produce an ...


4

The preparative mass spectrometry is field of active research, trying to overcome many obstacles. One of them is capturing the species (not only atoms, but almost anyting, undestroyed), with the hot candidate being soft landing Another problem is producing high enough flow of ions and removing the strict vacuum requirements of the traditional MS setup. ...


4

Vehicles that run on natural gas already exist, and have done for many years - you can find CNG (compressed natural gas) cars and larger vehicles around the world. But there's very little synthesising of methane because there are very few places with a sensible carbon price, so it's just cheaper to extract natural gas and burn it. Research is ongoing on ...


4

The idea has been proposed by several journal articles and Wikipedia suggests that it is being done already. In "Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA)", Franz proposes a method whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer Also, the journal "Phosphorus recycling in sewage treatment plants with ...


4

"Methane has a large effect (24 times as strong as carbon dioxide per unit mole) for a brief period (having an estimated lifetime of 8.9±0.6 years in the atmosphere),[12] whereas carbon dioxide has a small effect for a long period (over 100 years). Because of this difference in effect and time period, the global warming potential of methane over a 20-year ...


4

The main challenge is the macroscopic structure of cellulose. It's a solid, enzymes obviously can only start working on the surface, and hydrolases will work only on a few random loose chains. This is too slow, even if you have a lot of time and are not trying to make any money. So you need to break apart your cellulose first using a process that's cheap ...


4

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, there are 12 principles of green chemistry. The second method of synthesis is more green than the first method of synthesis as it adheres to the first, second and fourth principles while the first method does not. We can easily observe why this is so. Firstly, the second synthesis method ...


4

Before we come to your actual question, we should clarify a few other problems related to quantities and units in your expression: moles = mass / RFM It is essential to distinguish between quantities and units. For example, density is defined as “mass per volume” and not “mass per litre”. In your expression “moles” is a unit name; but it should actually ...


3

60 tons on $\ce{CaCO3}$ per hour means half a million tons per year. That's quite some calcium carbonate. Hens need $\ce{CaCO3}$ to produce eggs. So the most natural idea to recycle it is to produce feed lime. Or consider producing agricultural lime. The annual consumption of agricultural lime is about 2.5 million tons in Germany, and about 25 million tons ...


3

This question is impossible to answer without knowing which TPE you mean - TPE is a mixture of thermoplastic elastomers, which is a huge class of compounds. PVC is polyvinylchloride, which is a specific compound. I found an MSDS here: http://www.fishersci.com/ecomm/servlet/msdsproxy?productName=AC183320010&productDescription=POLY My advice is to ...


3

Is it possible to recycle an alkaline battery? Yes, in theory. Everyready has 4% recycled materiel in some of its batteries. The application I am thinking about is that in 3rd world countries often access to western markets is limited. You can't just pop into a store and buy batteries. Would it be possible for a small factory to be in these places and ...


3

Making pure silicon is somewhat like making aluminum, you heat SiO2 (sand, or more specifically, quartz) to a liquid state and hydrolyze with two carbon electrodes. One electrode combines the oxygen with the carbon in the electrode, releasing CO2, the silicon and other impurities remain behind. When this cools, you have foundry grade silicon, used mostly as ...


3

Actually a greenhouse gas absorbs light in the infrared wavelengths of light. One of two things will happen after the gas absorbs the IR radiation: 1) the molecules to move around and vibrate faster, which is really the definition of temperature, so the air gets warmer, and 2) the gas molecules can re-emit the IR radiation. In the second case, the radiation ...


3

I've been hearing about companies able to extract and concentrate carbon dioxide from ambient air, and was thinking about how it might be sequestered on sufficient scale to remove all excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Pumping the carbon dioxide underground or at the bottom of the ocean would probably work but raises concerns about stability and ...


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